Faught Between: East India Company ( led by Hector Munro) and
Combined forces of
Mir Qasim, Nawab of Bengal till 1764
the Nawab of Awadh Shuja-ud-Daula
the Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II
Treaty At the end; Treaty of Allahabad in 1765
Background of Battle of Buxar
Mir Jafar, Nawab of Bengal from 1757 to 1760.
Mir Jafar was in conflict with the East India company over too many demands and tried to tie up with the Dutch East India Company.
The British eventually overran the Dutch forces at Chinsura and played a major role in replacing Mir Jafar with Mir Qasim.
Mir Qasim repaid the British with lavish gifts
Mir Qasim robbed everybody, confiscated lands, reduced Mir Jafar’s purse and depleted the treasury.
he was soon tired of British interference and endless avarice and like Mir Jafar before him, yearned to break free of the British influence.
He shifted his capital from Murshidabad to Munger in present-day Bihar where he raised an independent army, financing them by streamlining tax collection.
He opposed the British East India Company’s position that their imperial Mughal license (dastak) meant that they could trade without paying taxes
Frustrated at the British refusal to pay these taxes, Mir Qasim abolished taxes on the local traders as well.
This upset the advantage that the British traders had been enjoying so far, and hostilities built up.
Mir Qasim overran the Company offices in Patna in 1763, killing several Europeans including the Resident.
Mir Qasim allied with Shuja-ud-Daula of Avadh and Shah Alam II, the Mughal emperor, who was also threatened by the British.
However, their combined forces were defeated in the Battle of Buxar in 1764.
The Battle of Buxar
The Battle of Buxar was fought on 21 October 1764,
between the forces under the command of the British East India Company, led by Hector Munro, and the combined armies of Mir Qasim, Nawab of Bengal till 1764; the Nawab of Awadh Shuja-ud-Daula; and the Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II
The battle was fought at Buxar, a “small fortified town” within the territory of Bihar, located on the banks of the Ganga river about 130 kilometers (81 mi) west of Patna; it was a decisive victory for the British East India Company.
Mir Kasim [Qasim] disappeared into impoverished obscurity. and died in poverty.
The war was brought to an end by the Treaty of Allahabad in 1765
Treaty of Allahabad
The Treaty of Allahabad was signed on 12 August 1765
between the Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II, son of the late Emperor Alamgir II, and Robert Clive, of the East India Company, as a result of the Battle of Buxar of 22 October 1764.
The treaty was handwritten by I’tisam-ud-Din, a Bengali Muslim scribe and diplomat to the Mughal Empire.
He was the first educated Indian and Bengali to visit England and describe the journey
The Treaty marks the political and constitutional involvement and the beginning of British rule in India.
Alam granted the East India Company Diwani rights, or the right to collect taxes on behalf of the Emperor from the province of Bengal-Bihar-Orissa.
So, this Started Dual Government in Bengal. Diwani and Nizamat.
This dual government was annulled by the advent of Warren Hastings and the year 1773 paved the way for regulation of the company by the British Parliament through the Regulating Act of 1773.( not part of the treaty of Allahabad )
India’s first Supreme Court, Fort William, Calcutta. The regulating act of 1773 established a supreme court at Fort William, Calcutta. .( not part of the treaty of Allahabad )
Nizamat (administration, judicial, and military powers) of the Nawab was also taken away in 1793, they remained as the mere pensioners of the Company.( not part of the treaty of Allahabad )
In return, the Company paid an annual tribute of twenty-six lakhs of rupees (equal to 260,000 pounds sterling)
Awadh was returned to Shuja-ud-Daulah, but Allahabad and Kora were taken from him.
The Nawab of Awadh also had to pay fifty lakhs of rupees as war indemnity to the East India Company.
Mir Jafar was again appointed Nawab of Bengal.he died soon in 1765, followed by his sons as Nawabs