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Education in Gupta Period

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updated on April 3rd, 2019

In the Gupta period, the Jain and Buddhist systems of education assumed a different dimension. Buddhist monasteries admitted students for ten years. Learning began with the oral method. Later they shifted to the reading of literary texts. The monasteries had libraries. Important manuscripts were copied and stored. Students from other countries like China and South-East Asia came to the Buddhist monasteries for education. The monasteries were normally maintained by grants from kings and the rich mercantile class. They attracted scholars from far and near. Fa-Hien also spent several years in the monastery at Pataliputra, studying Buddhist religious books. Besides Pataliputra, there were other centers of learning like Vanarasi, Mathura, Ujjain, and Nasik. Nalanda University was known all over Asia for its high standards of scholarship. The subjects taught included Vedanta, philosophy, study of the Puranas, epics, grammar, logic, astronomy, philosophy, medicine etc. Sanskrit, the court language was the medium of instruction. The Jains used Sanskrit literature like ‘Adipurana’ and ‘Yashatilaka’ for educational purposes in the earlier phase. But to make education more popular, the medium was changed to Prakrit and other regional languages like Tamil, Kannada and so on. Books in the Jain and Buddhist libraries were written on palm leaves that were tied together and were known as “granthas”. Slowly, Jainism and Buddhism lost royal patronage and their monasteries started declining as centres of education and learning. The ‘mathas’ supported by Brahmins were institutions parallel to Jain and Buddhist monasteries. The ‘mathas’ functioned like ashramas for educational purposes.

Objective Question Set 1

1. Who among the following Gupta kings had another name Devagupta?

(a) Chandragupta I

(b) Samudragupta

(c) Chandragupta II

(d) Kumargupta

2. Who among the following Gupta kings ascended the throne in the year 56 of Gupta era?

(a) Samudragupta

(b) Chandragupta II

(c) Kumargupta

(d) Skandgupta

3. Which one of the following was the biggest hoard of Gupta coins?

(a) Basti hoard

(b) Bayana hoard

(c) Hajipur hoard

(d) Kotawa hoard

4. During Gupta period, which deity was called Lokarka?

(a) Sun

(b) Ganesha

(c) Kumara

(d) Shiva

5. The guild organization described in the Mandsore inscription of Kumaragupta was known as

(a) Tantuvaya

(b) Dantakara

(c) Kulika

(d) Tailika

Solutions Set 1

1. (c)

2. (b)

3. (b)

4. (a)

5. (a)

Explanation Set 1

1. (c) The Gupta king, Chandragupta II had another name Devagupta. Chandragupta II was the third, and most significant of the Gupta kings (C.375–C.415). Inheriting a large empire, he extended his control to Gujarat (north of Bombay) and Malwa (central India). To strengthen his southern flank, he made marriage arrangements for his daughters with southern dynasties. In different inscriptions, Chandragupta II also named as Devasri and Devaraja in various inscriptions.

2. (b) Chandragupta II ascended the throne in the year 56 of Gupta era. In 319, Chandragupta created for himself the title King of Kings (Maharajadhiraja), and he extended his rule westward to Prayaga, in north-central India. Ten years into his rule, Chandragupta lay dying, and he told his son, Samudragupta, to rule the whole world. His son tried. Samudragupta’s forty-five years of rule would be described as one vast military campaign. He waged war along the Ganges plain, overwhelming nine kings and incorporating their subjects and lands into the Gupta empire.

3. (b) Bayana was the biggest hoard of Gupta era’s coins. The collection and study of coins is known as Numismatics. The bayana hoard of coins was discovered by A.S. Altekar. Mr. Altekar, the person who had hoarded the coins might be a collector himself since most of the Gupta dynasty coins spanning 200+ years were found together in a single vessel. The Bayan is the place in Rajasthan.

4. (a) During Gupta period, sun was called Lokarka. The Gupta period developed a form of sculpture that was wholly Indian, the foreign influences that had crept in the Gandhara and Mathura schools of arts disappeared. Most sculptures focused on religious and spiritual themes, like the Buddha or Hindu gods like Vishnu and Shiv. The art had been highly developed and the sculptures were exquisite.

5. (a) The guild organization described in the Mandsore inscription of Kumargupta was known as Tantuvaya. This inscription informs us that he was a feudatory of the Gupta emperor Kumargupta I. It was during his reign, a temple dedicated to Surya was constructed by the guild of silk-weavers at Dashapura in the Malava Samvat 493 (436 CE). This temple was renovated in 473 CE by the same guild.

Objective Question Set 2

1. Which one of the following was a land measure in Gupta period?

(a) Dharaka

(b) Karsha

(c) Nivartana

(d) Vimsopaka

2. The word Dinara used for the gold coins in the Gupta inscription is derived from

(a) Sanskrit

(b) Greek

(c) Chinese

(d) Latin

3. What was the main objective of Sultan Mahmud’s Indian conquests?

(a) Propagation of Religion

(b) Extension of Empire

(c) Acquisition of Wealth

(d) None of these

4. Who among the following was the ruler of Kanchi during the time of Samudragupta?

(a) Hastivarman

(b) Mantaraya

(c) Nilaraja

(d) Vishnugopa

5. The guild which migrated from Lata to Daspura during the time of Kumargupta, traded in

(a) Jewels

(b) Horses

(c) Silken textile

(d) Ivory

Solutions Set 2

1. (c)

2. (d)

3. (c)

4. (d)

5. (c)

Explanation Set 2

1. (c) Nivartana was a land measure in Gupta period. Different land measures were known in different regions, such as Nivartana, Kulyavapa and Dronavapa. The importance of irrigation to help agriculture was recognized in India from the earliest times. According to Narada, there are two kinds of dykes the bardhya which protected the field from floods and the Khaya which served the purpose of irrigation.

2. (d) The word Dinara used for the gold coins in the gupta inscription is derived from Latin. The main purpose behind the choice of Gupta coin designs seems to have been one of political propaganda. The king is always shown in ways that emphasize his status as a great ruler and heroic warrior. The representations are idealized images that adhere to the strict contemporary artistic concepts of the perfect human form.

3. (c) Acquisition of wealth was the main objective of Sultan Mahmud’s Indian conquests. In 1001, Mahmud of Ghazni had first invaded India. Mahmud defeated, captured and later released Shahi ruler Jaya Pala who had moved his capital to Peshawar. Jaya Pala killed himself and was succeeded by his son Ananda Pala. In 1005, Mahmud of Ghazni invaded Bhatia (probably Bhera) and in 1006 he invaded Multan at which time Ananda Pala’s army attacked him.

4. (d) Vishnugopa was the ruler of Kanchi during the time of Samudragupta. In the southern Pallava kingdom of Kanchipuram, he defeated king Vishnugopa, then restored him and other defeated southern kings to their thrones on payment of tribute. Several northern kings were uprooted, however, and their territories added to the Gupta empire. At the height of Samudragupta’s power, he controlled nearly all of the valley of the Ganges (Ganga) river and received homage from rulers of parts of east Bengal, Assam, Nepal, the eastern part of the Punjab, and various tribes of Rajasthan.

5. (c) The guild which migrated from Lata to Daspura during the time of Kumargupta traded in silken textile.

Objective Question Set 3

1. The Gupta ruler who defeated the Hunas was

(a) Samudragupta

(b) Chandragupta II

(c) Kumargupta

(d) Skandgupta

2. Which inscription of the Gupta period gives details regarding the sale of land?

(a) Junagarh inscription

(b) Bhitari pillar inscription

(c) Begram copper plane

(d) Damodarpur copper plate

3. Who was the first ruler of Gupta dynasty to assume the title of ‘Maharajadhiraja?

(a) Srigupta

(b) Chandragupta I

(c) Samudragupta

(d) Chandragupta II

4. In the Gupta inscription who has been called “Lichchhavi Dauhitra” ?

(a) Chandragupta I

(b) Samudragupta

(c) Chandragupta II

(d) Skandgupta

5. Who of the following Gupta kings was first to issue silver coins?

(a) Chandragupta I

(b) Samudragupta

(c) Chandragupta II

(d) Kumargupta

Solutions Set 3

1. (d)

2. (d)

3. (b)

4. (c)

5. (c)

Explanation Set 3

1. (d) Skandgupta was the Gupta ruler who defeated the Hunas. Soon after his accession, Skandagupta had to face the Hunas who had already proved themselves to be a terror to both Europe and Asia. About the middle of the fifth century AD, one branch of the Hunas known as White Hunas occupied the Oxus valley and threatened both Persia and India. They conquered Gandhara and threatened the very existence of the Gupta empire. Skandgupta inflicted such a terrible defeat upon the Hunas that they dared not disturb the empire for nearly half a century.

2. (d) Damodarpur copper plate inscription of the Gupta period gives details regarding the sale of land. Damodarpur (in Dinajpur District) Copper Plate No.1 of Kumargupta I (443–444AD) is probably the most important for a knowledge of local administrative pattern and is the most popular source for historians. It refers to Visayapati Kumaramatya Vetravarman, who was appointed by (Tanniyukta) the Uparika Ciratadatta, Governor of Pundravardhana Bhukti. Vetravarman being incharge of Kotivarsa Visaya (dist.) administered the government of the locality in the Administrative Board in company of Dhrtipala, the Nagaraśresthi, Bandhumitra, the Sarthavaha, Dhrtimitra – the Prathamakulika and Śambapala – the Prathama Kayastha. They were seen to come together and consult on the sales of land.

3. (b) Chandragupta, I was the first ruler of Gupta dynasty to assume the title of ‘Maharajadhiraja’ Chandragupta I assumed the high-sounding title of Maharajadhiraja (Great king of Kings). Conceding the importance of his wife, Chandragupta issued gold coins in the joint names of himself, his queent Kumaradevi and the Lichchhavi nation. Emboldened by his success, he established a new era.

4. (b) In the Gupta inscription, Samudragupta has been called ‘Lichchhavi Dauhitra”. There is also evidence of relationship between the early Guptas and the Lichchhavis. Chandragupta I married the Lichchhavi princess Kumaradevi, for which reason their son Samudragupta has been called Lichchhavi – duhitra. It is further indicated by some gold coins which, on the obverse, bear their figures and names and, on the reverse, the name of the Lichchhavis.

5. (c) Chandragupta II, the Gupta king was first to issue silver coins. A large number of beautiful gold coins issued by the Gupta dynasty are a testament to the imperial grandeur of that age. Chandragupta II also started producing silver coins in the Saka tradition. The conquest is indicated by the issue of the new Gupta silver coinage modelled on the previous Saka coinage showing on observe the King’s head, Greek script, and dates as on Saka coins.

Objective Question Set 4

1. The Gupta gold coins were known as

(a) Dramma

(b) Karsapana

(c) Dinar

(d) Niska

2. Prabhavati Gupta was the daughter of

(a) Chandragupta I

(b) Chandragupta II

(c) Kumargupta

(d) Skandgupta

3. Who of the following kings is depicted as playing on a flute on his coins?

(a) Menander

(b) Skandgupta

(c) Samudragupta

(d) Kumargupta

4. The concept of Trimurti was promulgated during the

(a) Mauryan period

(b) Post-Mauryan period

(c) Gupta period

(d) Post-Gupta period

5. Which of the following rulers started Gupta currency system?

(a) Srigupta

(b) Chandragupta I

(c) Samudragupta

(d) Chandragupta II

Solutions Set 4

1. (c)

2. (b)

3. (c)

4. (c)

5. (b)

Explanation Set 4

1. (c) The Gupta gold coins were known as Dinar. The world’s first coins were Greek, made in Lydia about 640 BC. The earliest Indian coins were silver, and it was not until about 100 AD that the Kushan emperor Vima Kadaphises introduced the first Indian gold coin, which was a gold dinar bearing the image of Shiva. So India’s history of issuing gold coins dates back almost 2,000 years.

2. (b) Prabhavati Gupta was the daughter of Chandragupta II. Prabhavatigupta was married to the powerful Vakataka dynasty ruler Rudrasena II (r.380–385 CE). Rudrasena II, died fortuitously after a very short reign in 385 CE, following which Queen Prabhavati Gupta (r. 385–405) ruled the Vakataka kingdom as a regent on behalf of her two sons. During this twenty-year period, the Vakataka realm was practically a part of the Gupta empire.

3. (c) Samudragupta is depicted as playing on a flute on his coins. It was played with the strings being kept parallel to the body of the player, with both hands plucking the strings, as shown on Samudragupta’s gold coins. Early literary sources of an ancient instrument called the Saptatantree Veenaa (7-string Veenaa) seem to coincide generally with the type of instrument represented on the coin.

4. (c) The concept of Trimurti was propgated during the Gupta period. Trimurti is a Hinduism concept in which the functions of creation, preservation and destruction are personified. They are embodied by the forms of the creator, Brahma, preserver, Vishnu and the destroyer known as Shiva.

5. (b) It is usually held that Chandragupta I was the first imperial ruler who introduced currency system and that the Chandragupta-Kumaradevi type of gold coins were the earliest gold coins of the dynasty. But according to the scholars, it was Samudragupta who first issued Gupta coins that his first gold coins were of standard type and that later on he issued the Chandragupta-Kumaradevi type of coins to commemorate his father’s marriage to Lichchhavi princess which had proved to be great benefit to the Gupta dynasty. The minting of silver coins was first started in the reign of Chandragupta II and was continued by Kumargupta I and Skandgupta.

Objective Question Set 5

1. The first Gupta ruler to assume the title of ‘Param Bhagawata’ was

(a) Chandragupta I

(b) Samudragupta

(c) Chandragupta II

(d) Kumargupta

2. The officer responsible for the safe custody of land records during the Gupta period was known as

(a) Dhruvadhikarana

(b) Karanika

(c) Samaharta

(d) Shaulkika

3. Who among the following is known as the ‘Napoleon of India’ ?

(a) Chandragupta Maurya

(b) Samudragupta

(c) Chandragupta II

(d) Harshvardhan

4. The first inscriptional evidence of Satipratha has been found from

(a) Eran

(b) Junagarh

(c) Mandsaur

(d) Sanchi

5. Which of the following was a strong centre of the Pasupatas during the time of Chandragupta II?

(a) Mathura

(b) Kaushambi

(c) Tripuri

(d) Udaigiri

Solutions Set 5

1. (c)

2. (b)

3. (b)

4. (a)

5. (a)

Explanation Set 5

1. (c) The first Gupta ruler to assume the title of ‘Param Bhagawata’ was Chandragupta II. The Bhagavata Purana entails the fully developed tenets and philosophy of the Bhagavata tradition wherein Krishna gets fused with Vasudeva and transcends Vedic Vishnu and cosmic Hari to be turned into the ultimate object of Bhakti.

2. (b) The officer responsible for the safe custody of land records during the Gupta period was known as Karanika. This is the Dhruvadhi-Karanika (otherwise called Dhruvasthanadhikaranika) the officer in-charge of the Dhruvas,’ the last term being applied till recent times in Kathiawar and Cutch to denote persons who superintended the collection of land-revenue by the farmers on the king’s behalf.

3. (b) Samudragupta (335-375 AD) of the Gupta dynasty is known as the Napoleon of India. Historian AV Smith called him so because of his great military conquests known from the ‘Prayag Prashati’ written by his courtier and poet Harisena, who also describes him as the hero of a hundred battles. But some leading Indian historians criticise Smith and feel that Samudragupta was a far greater warrior than Napoleon, as the former never lost any battle.

4. (a) The first inscriptional evidence of satipratha has been found from Eran.Some reliable records indicate the practice before the time of the Gupta empire, approximately 400 CE. After about this time, instances of Sati began to be marked by inscribed memorial stones. According to Axel Michaels, the first clear proofs of the practice is from Nepal in 464 CE, and in India from 510 CE. In India, the earliest of these memorial stones are found in Sagar, Madhya Pradesh, though the largest collections date from several centuries later, and are found in Rajasthan.

5. (a) Mathura was a strong centre of the pasupates during the time of Chandragupta II. A large number of coins were found at places like Mathura and Kannauj and in Panchala region which are supposed to be associated with the Mitra rulers. The basis of the coins are generally believed to have flourished between C.100 BC and C.200 AD.

Objective Question Set 6

1. Which one of the following epithets does not belong to Samudragupta?

(a) Lichhavi Dauhitrah

(b) Sarvarajochhetta

(c) Aswamedha Parakramah

(d) Vikramaditya

2. Who among the following was the mother of Prabhavati Gupta?

(a) Kumardevi

(b) Kuberanaga

(c) Dhruvadevi

(d) None of these

3. The travel account of Fa hien is known as

(a) Si-yu-ki

(b) Yen-tu

(c) Fo-kwo-ki

(d) Fa-chien

4. Who has complimented Samudragupta as the ‘Indian Napoleon’ ?

(a) Radhakumud Mukherji

(b) V.A. Smith

(c) R.N. Dandekar

(d) R.C. Majumdar

5. The Hunes invaded India during the reign of

(a) Chandragupta II

(b) Kumargupta- I

(c) Skandgupta

(d) Budhagupta

Solutions Set 6

1. (d)

2. (b)

3. (c)

4. (b)

5. (c)

Explanation Set 6

1. (d) Vikramaditya epithet does not belong to Samudragupta. Samudragupta was the greatest of the Gupta rulers, the founder of the Guptas empire, the “Indian Napoleon” by virtue of his military exploits, a diplomat and statesman of the first order, an able and efficient administrator, “the prince of poets”, (Kaviraj) the protector and defender of the poor and the weak.

2. (b) Kuberanaga was the mother of prabhavati gupta. Chandragupta II married the Naga Princess Kuberanaga and gave his own daughter, Prabhabati, in marriage to Vakataka king, Rudra Sena II. The Vakataka alliance was master stroke of diplomacy as it secured the subordinate alliance of the Vakataka king who occupied a strategic geographical position. It is noteworthy that Rudra Sena died young and his widow reigned until her sons came of age.

3. (c) The travel account of Fa-hien is known as Fokwo- ki. Fa-hien was the first Chinese monk to travel to India in search of great Buddhist scriptures. At the age of sixty-five, he travelled, mostly on foot, from Central China taking the southern route through Shenshen, Dunhuang, Khotan, and then over the Himalayas, to Gandhara and Peshawar.

4. (b) AV Smith complimented Samudragupta as the Indian Napoleon. Samudragupta embarked upon a policy of conquest. In fact,Digvijay became the ultimate call of his life. For his military achievements, he has been aptly complemented by the historian AV Smith as the Indian Napoleon. He has described Samudragupta as the Hero of Hundred Battles.

5. (c) The Hunas invaded India during the reign of Skandgupta. Hunas were Iranian-speaking Xionite tribes who, via Khyber Pass, entered India at the end of the 5th or early 6th century and were defeated by the Hindu Gupta Empire. In its farthest geographical extent in India, the Huna empire covered the region up to Malwa in central India.

Objective Question Set 7

1. The silver coins issued by the Guptas were called

(a) Rupaka

(b) Karshapana

(c) Dinara

(d) Pana

2. Out of eighteen rulers of the family at least one -third were women. This statement is applicable to

(a) Bhaumakaras

(b) Chalukyas

(c) Rastrakutas

(d) Kakatiyas

3. Which ruler suffered defeat at the hands of Samudragupta?

(a) Rudradev

(b) Prithvisena

(c) Pravarasena

(d) Damodarsena

4. The word Vishti means

(a) Forced labour

(b) Irrigation tax

(c) Rights of slaves

(d) Property of women

5. The royal emblem used by the Gupta period was

(a) Lakshmi

(b) Varaha

(c) Garuda

(d) Bull

Solutions Set 7

1. (a)

2. (a)

3. (a)

4. (a)

5. (c)

Explanation Set 7

. (a) The silver coins issued by the Guptas were called Rupaka. The silver coin was called Rupaka based on Sakas of Ujjaini weighing 32–36 grains. According to Fa hien, cowries were very common means of exchange. In Delhi Sultanate, gold coins were called Tanka which were equivalent to the Greek Drachm standard of 67 grains. The silver coins were called Drama.

2. (a) Out of eighteen rulers of the family, at least one-third were women. This statement is applicable to Bhaunakaras. In the course of the 16th and 17th centuries during the Sultanate of Women, women of the imperial Harem had extraordinary influence on politics of Ottoman empire. Many of the Sultans during this time were minors and it was their mothers, sometimes daughters of the sultan as Mihrimah Sultan, leaders of the Harem, who effectively ruled the empire. Most of these women were of slave origin.

3. (a) Rudradev suffered defeat at the hands of Samudragupta. After the death of Hameer Dev, Rudra Dev became the king. He was a brave person. He established the peace in his state. He was married to the daughter of neighbouring state and got that state in dowry. He declared Rudri as his capital of the state. He got the temple of lord Shiva constructed on the bank of Mahanadi. This temple is famous by the name of Rudreshwar.

4. (a) The word Vishti means Forced labour.While the Kshatriyas acquired their share of the social surplus through the force of arms in the form of taxes (Kar, Shulka, Bali, etc.), forced labour (Vishti, Balutam, etc.), tithes and other privileges. The Brahmin clergy enforced its claim to the social surplus through a moral deterrent which was based on strength of the tribal morality of distribution.

5. (c) The royal emblem used by the Gupta period was Garuda. Most people now realize that Rapson was mistaken in identifying the central bird as a peacock; rather, it is the mythic eagle Garuda, the dynastic symbol of the Guptas. For example, A.S. Altekar says that the three-arched hill in the centre is replaced by Garuda, which was the imperial insignia of the Guptas. The view of earlier writers that the bird is a peacock is clearly untenable.

Objective Question Set 8

1. Who among the following issued the largest number of gold coins?

(a) Satavahanas

(b) Kushanas

(c) Chalukyas

(d) Guptas

2. Expansion of agricultural land took place on the largest scale in which period ?

(a) Pre-Mauryan age

(b) Mauryan age

(c) Post-Mauryan age

(d) Gupta age

3. Who among the following credited with authoring Brihatsamhita?

(a) Brahmagupta

(b) Varahamihira

(c) Bhaskara

(d) Aryabhatta

4. Which of the following contains the description of the king Dushyant of Hastinapur?

(a) Mrichhkatikam

(b) Mundrarakshas

(c) Abhigyanashakuntalam

(d) Hitopadesh

5. Which among the following is known for his work on medicine during the Gupta period?

(a) Sudraka

(b) Shaunaka

(c) Sushruta

(d) Saumilla

Solutions Set 8

1. (d)

2. (d)

3. (b)

4. (c)

5. (c)

Explanation Set 8

1. (d) Much is known about Samudragupta through coins issued by him and inscriptions. These were of eight different types and all made of pure gold. His conquests brought him the gold and also the coin-making expertise from his acquaintance with the Kushana. Most certainly, Samudragupta is the father of Gupta monetary system. He started minting different types of coins. They are known as the Standard Type, the Archer Type, the Battle Axe Type, the Ashvamedha Type, the Tiger Slayer Type, the King and Queen Type and the Lute Player Type.

2. (d) Expansion of agricultural land took place on the largest scale in Gupta age. The degeneration of the Vaisya’s (the third, or trader caste), which had begun earlier, intensified during this period. Because of advanced agricultural techniques and developments in handicrafts, the condition of the Sudra’ s (the fourth, or menial caste) improved and there was no great difference between a poor Vaisya and a prosperous Sudra.

3. (b) Varahamihira credited with authoring Brihat Samhita. Varahamihira, also called Varahamira or simply Varaha, was one of the most celebrated scientists in South Asian history, having made substantial contributions to virtually all branches of the arts and sciences. He wrote three important books: Panchasiddhantika, Brihat Samhita, and Brihat Jataka. Brihat Samhita is a compilation of an assortment of topics that provides interesting details of prevailing beliefs. Brihat Jataka is a book on astrology.

4. (c) Abhigyanashakuntalam contains the description of the king Dushyant of Hastinapur. Abhigynanasakuntalam is a beautiful tale of love and romance, the name literally meaning ‘Of Sakuntala who is recognized by a token’. Written by one of the greatest poets of India, Sakuntalam is synonymous with its author, Kalidasa. Abhigynanasakuntalam is the first Indian play ever to be translated into western languages. It is for the very first time translated in English language by Sir William Jones in the year 1789. Later to this, there were at least 46 translations of this play by Kalidasa in 12 different European languages.

5. (c) Sushruta is known for his work on medicine during the Gupta period. Sushruta was the first Indian surgeon of 600 century BC. The only bust of Sushruta is placed in Sushrutanagar, near Siliguri of India. The Sushruta Samhita is a Sanskrit text on surgery. The work is attributed to Sushruta, a historical physician of 6th century BCE, although the text as preserved dates to the 3rd or 4th century CE. It is one of three foundational texts of Ayurveda (Indian traditional medicine).

Objective Question Set 9

1. During which Gupta king’s reign did the Chinese traveller Fa hien visit India?

(a) Chandragupta I

(b) Chandragupta II

(c) Samudragupta

(d) Skandgupta

2. Who was the first known Gupta ruler?

(a) Srigupta

(b) Ghatotakacha

(c) Chandragupta I

(d) Budhagupta

3. Which of the following literary works did not belong to the Gupta period?

(a) Amarakosa

(b) Abhigyanashakuntalam

(c) Charaka Samhita

(d) Mrichhakatikam

4. The Prayaga Prasasti inscription is associated with which one of the following?

(a) Mahapadmanand

(b) Kanishka

(c) Chandragupta II

(d) Samudragupta

5. Balaiyankutai in the pallava age was the name of

(a) A scholar

(b) A Goddess

(c) A pond or tank

(d) A temple

Solutions Set 9

1. (b)

2. (a)

3. (d)

4. (d)

5. (c)

Explanation Set 9

1. (b) Chinese traveller Fa-hien visited India during the reign of Chandragupta II. Fa-hien was the first Chinese Buddhist pilgrim to leave an account of his travels to Central Asia, India, and Sri Lanka. The name of this monk may correctly be pronounced as Faxian but is also written as Fa-hien. A native of Shanxi (Shansi), he left home at the tender age of three to join the Buddhist Sangha.

2. (a) Srigupta was the first known Gupta ruler. The Gupta empire was an ancient Indian empire, founded by Maharaja Sri Gupta, which existed from approximately 320 to 550 CE and covered much of the Indian Subcontinent. The peace and prosperity created under the leadership of the Guptas enabled the pursuit of scientific and artistic endeavours. This period is called the Golden Age of India.

3. (d) Mrichhakatikam literary works did not belong to the Gupta period. Of all the Sanskrit dramas, Mrichhakatica remains one of the most widely celebrated and oft-performed in the West, in part because its plot structure more closely resembles that of Western classics than other Hindu plays. The work played a significant role in generating interest in Indian theatre among European audiences following several successful nineteenth century translations and stage productions.

4. (d) The Prayaga Prasasti inscription is associated with Samudragupta. The western scholars equate him with Napoleon and call him Indian Napoleon due to the extensive military conquests. His court poet and minister Harisena composed the Allahabad pillar inscription or Prayaga Prasasti. The Pillar was an Asokan pillar erected by Asoka six century before him.

5. (c) Balaiyankutai in the pallava age was the name of a pond or tank. Majority of the irrigation tanks were built from the 6th to the 10th centuries of our era during the dynasty of the Pallavas. One will understand the importance of these systems of irrigation by noting that about one-third of the surface area of the state is actually irrigated by these omnipresent tanks (about 40,000 such tanks), the two-thirds of water needs come from the exploitation of ground water.

Objective Question Set 10

1. During the reign of which dynasties, did Kalidasa flourish?

(a) Mauryas

(b) Sungas

(c) Guptas

(d) Post Guptas

2. Kumar sambhavam an epic was composed by

(a) Chandbardai

(b) Harisen

(c) Banabhatta

(d) Kalidasa

3. Which of the following was the official language of Gupta period ?

(a) Pali

(b) Prakrit

(c) Magadhi

(d) Sanskrit

4. Who of the following organised Ashwamedha Yajana?

(a) Bindusar

(b) Samudragupta

(c) Chandragupta I

(d) Skandgupta

5. Which one of the following periods marks the beginning of the Indian temple architecture?

(a) Nand

(b) Maurya

(c) Sunga

(d) Gupta

Solutions Set 10

1. (c)

2. (d)

3. (d)

4. (b)

5. (d)

Explanation Set 10

1. (c) Kalidasa flourished in the time of Chandragupta II (reigned 380–413). A traditional Indian view would have it that he adorned Vikramaditya’s court in the 1st century BC. Although he was especially fond of the Gupta capital city, Ujjain (about 30 miles north of Indore in west-central India), there is no proof that he was born there. Kalidasa was a devotee of shiva, but there is no trace.

2. (d) Kumarsambhavam an epic was composed by Kalidasa.The Kumarsambhavam is widely regarded as one of Kalidasa’s finest works, a paradigmatic example of poetry. The style of description of spring set the standard for nature metaphors pervading many centuries of Indian literary tradition.The period of composition is uncertain, although Kalidasa is thought of as having lived in the 5th century AD.

3. (d) Sanskrit was the official language of Gupta period. Scholars of this period includeVarahamihira and Aryabhatta, who is believed to be the first to come up with the concept of zero, postulated the theory that the Earth moves round the Sun, and studied solar and lunar eclipses. Kalidasa, who was a great playwright, who wrote plays such as Shakuntala, which is said to have inspired Goethe, and marked the highest point of Sanskrit literature is also said to have belonged to this period.

4. (b) Samudragupta organised Ashwamedha Yajana. When a king thought that he had conquered the whole land, he used to let loose a white horse. The horse would roam wherever it liked. If anybody tried to capture it, he would have to fight the king’s army. If the horse returned home without being captured, it meant that everyone in the land recognized the power of the king. The horse was then offered as sacrifice and killed. The ceremony was called the Ashvamedha Yajana.

5. (d) Gupta period marks the begining of the Indian temple architecture. The Gupta temple was a “shikara” type of temple, built in a straight edged pyramid shape, but this cannot be fully established by existing evidence. However, the supporting features of copings and amalakas (a bulbous stone finial), support the theory that a shikara existed as part of the main shrine.

Objective Question Set 11

1. Aryabhatta and Varahamihira belong to which age?

(a) Maurya

(b) Kushana

(c) Gupta

(d) Cholas

2. Who was the author of Mandasore inscription?

(a) Veersena

(b) Harisena

(c) Vatsabhatta

(d) Banabhatta

3. Kumarsambhavam describes the story of the birth of

(a) Kartikeya

(b) Pradyamna

(c) Abhimanyu

(d) Sanatkumara

4. Who of the following Gupta kings granted permission to Meghverma, the ruler of Sri Lanka to build a Buddhist temple at Gaya?

(a) Chandragupta I

(b) Chandragupta II

(c) Samudragupta

(d) Skandgupta

5. Who was the author of legal treatise ‘Nitisara’?

(a) Veersena

(b) Harisena

(c) Vishakhadutta

(d) Kamandaka

Solutions Set 11

1. (c)

2. (a)

3. (a)

4. (c)

5. (d)

Explanation Set 11

1. (c) Aryabhatta and Varahamihira belonged to Gupta age. During Gupta period education flourished and many great discoveries were made in these fields. Aryabhatta and Varahamihira, the two great mathematicians contributed in the field of Vedic Mathematics. Aryabhatta found and estimated the value of “Pi” to the fourth decimal place. Algebra was developed to a great extent and the concepts of zero and infinity were also found and symbols of numbers 1 to 9 were devised which was a great contribution in mathematics. Advances in astronomy were also on heights in Gupta Age.

2. (a) Veersena was the author of Mandalore inscription. There is an inscription about Bandhuverma at Mandalore. The silk workers had constructed a Sun temple here which was repaired by Bandhuverma in Samvat 493. This indicates that he was present there till 436 CE. The Risthal stone slab inscription discovered in 1983 has brought to light another Aulikara dynasty, which comprised the following kings in the order of succession: Drumavardhana, Jayavardhana Ajitavardhana, Vibhishanavardhana, Rajyavardhana and Prakashadharma.

3. (a) Kumarsambhavam describes the story of the birth of Kartikeya. Kumarsambhavam is a legendary Sanskrit poem written by Mahakavi Kalidasa. It is one of the most substantial examples of poetryKavya. Kumarsambhavam literally stands for “Birth of the War-god”, i.e. Kartikeya, Shiva`s first son. Kumarsambhavam essentially talks about the courtship of Lord Shiva and Parvati. The bulk of chapters have enormous details about the love and romance between Shiva and Parvati.

4. (c) Samudragupta granted permission to Meghverma the ruler of Sri Lanka to build a Buddhist temple in Gaya. Kittisirimegha of Sri Lanka, a contemporary of Samudragupta, erected with the permission of Samudragupta, a Sangharama near the Mahabodhi Vihara, chiefly for the use of the Singhalese monks who went to worship the Bodhi tree.

5. (d) Kamandaka was the author of legal treatise ‘Nitisara’. The Nitisara of Kamandaki a post- Maurya treatise narrating the elements of polity divided in twenty Sargas and thirty-six Prakarans is dependent on the Arthashastra of Kautilya dealing inter-alia with theories of social order authority and obligation of the temporal ruler theories of states, structure and organs of government principles and policies of government, interstate relations, functions of envoys ambassadors and spies, application of different political expedients, varieties of battle arrays, attitude towards morality, etc.

Objective Question Set 12

1. In the Gupta administration, who was Purpala?

(a) Administrator of village

(b) Administrator of town

(c) Administrator of capital

(d) Administrator of conquered territories

2. The Nagars style of architecture development mostly in

(a) North India

(b) South India

(c) East India

(d) West India

3. Who was the last ruler of the imperial Gupta family?

(a) Ramagupta

(b) Buddhagupta

(c) Kumargupta

(d) Vishnugupta

4. In which century, did the famous Chinese pilgrim Fa hien visit India?

(a) 4th century AD

(b) 5th century AD

(c) 6th century AD

(d) 7th century AD

5. The decimal numeral system, including the concept of zero was invented in India during which one of the following dynasties?

(a) Nanda

(b) Maurya

(c) Gupta

(d) Pala

Solutions Set 12

1. (d)

2. (a)

3. (d)

4. (b)

5. (c)

Explanation Set 12

1. (d) In the Gupta administration, purpala was the administrator of conquered territories. The person was mostly from the authority who reigned in that region itself but sometimes the faithful of king also took the control of these territories.

2. (a) The Nagas style of architecture developed mostly in North India. Chandra Gupta II also married to a Kadamba princess of Kuntala region and a princess of Naga lineage (Nagakulotpannna), Kuberanaga. His daughter Prabhabatigupta from this Naga queen was married to Rudrasea II, the Vakataka ruler of Deccan. His son Kumargupta I was married to Kadamba princess of Karnataka region.

3. (d) Vishnugupta was the last ruler of the imperial Gupta family. Vishnugupta was one of the lesser known kings of the Gupta dynasty. He is generally considered to be the last recognized king of the Gupta empire. His reign lasted 10 years, from 540 to 550 CE. From the fragment of his clay sealing discovered at Nalanda during the excavations of 1927–28, we came to know that he was the son of Kumargupta III and the grandson of Narsimhagupta Baladitya.

4. (b) In 5th century AD, the famous Chinese pilgrim Fa-hein visited India. Travelling through central Asia and northwest India, Fa-hien reached northern India and then visited the holy Buddhist sites located in the Ganges valley: Kapilavastu, the birthplace of Buddha; Bodhgaya, the site of Buddha’s enlightenment; Sarnath, where Buddha preached his first sermon, and Kushinagara, the place of Buddha’s nirvana.

5. (c) The decimal numeral system, including the concept of zero was invented in India during the Gupta dynasty. The mathematical concept of zero emerged in India about one and a half thousand years ago.

Objective Question Set 13

1. In the courtyard of the Quwwat-ul-Islam mosque of Delhi, stands the famous iron pillar in the memory of

(a) Ashoka

(b) Chandragupta Maurya

(c) Chandragupta I

(d) Chandragupta II

2. Sudraka’s Mrichhakatikam is a

(a) Novel

(b) Drama

(c) Poem

(d) Short story

3. The six distinct schools of Indian philosophy Sankhya, Yoga, Nyaya, Vaishasika, Mimansa, Vedanta became fully articulated during the

(a) Vedic period

(b) Maurya period

(c) Buddha period

(d) Gupta period

4. Who was the author of a famous Ayurvedic text Ashtanghriday?

(a) Vagbhatta

(b) Charaka

(c) Dhanvantari

(d) Nagarjuna

5. Ujjain is a birth place of

(a) Aryabhatta

(b) Bhaskar

(c) Bramhagupta

(d) Varahamihira

Solutions Set 13

1. (d)

2. (b)

3. (d)

4. (a)

5. (c)

Explanation Set 13

1. (d) In the courtyard of the Quwat-ul-Islam mosque of Delhi stands the famous Iron pillar in the memory of Chandragupta II. The height of the pillar, from the top of its capital to the bottom of its base, is 7.21 m (23.7 ft), 1.12 m (3 ft 8 in) of which is below ground. Its bell pattern capital is 1.07 m (3 ft 6 in) in height, and its bulb-shaped base is 0.71 m (2 ft 4 in) high. The base rests on a grid of iron bars soldered with lead into the upper layer of the dressed stone pavement. The pillar’s lower diameter is 420 mm (17 in), and its upper diameter 306 mm (12.0 in). It is estimated to weigh more than six tons.

2. (b) Sudraka’Mrichhakotikam is a ten-act Sanskrit drama attributed to Sudraka an ancient playwright generally thought to have lived sometime between the second century BC and the fifth century AD whom the prologue identifies as a Kshatriya king and a devotee of Shiva who lived for 100 years. The play is set in the ancient city of Ujjayani during the reign of the King Palaka, near the end of the Pradyota dynasty that made up the first quarter of the fifth century BC.

3. (d) The six district school of Indian philosophy Sankhya, Yoga, Nyaya, Vaishasika, Mimansa, Vedanta became fully articulated during the Gupta period.

4. (a) Vegbhatta was the author of a famous Ayurvedic text Ashtanghriday. The science of chemistry, due to its Vedic antiquity might have been first recognized in India, as a separate discipline. Alchemy and the science of medicine gave rise to the study of chemistry in India. The ancient masters as mentioned in connection with chemistry are: Patanjali, Bhavya Dattadeva, Vyadi, Svacchanda, Damodara, Vasudeva, Charaka, Sushruta, Harita and Vagbhata. Ancient Sanskrit documents about the advanced chemical science find the expression in activities like distillation of perfumes and fragrant ointments. It is also found in activities like manufacturing of dyes and chemical preparation of pigments and colours and polishing of mirrors.

5. (c) Ujjain is a birth place of Brahmagupta. By the 6th century BC, Avanti with its capital at Ujjaini, is mentioned in Buddhist literature as one of the four great powers along with Vatsa, Kosala and Magadha. Ujjain lay on the main trade route between North India and Deccan going from Mathura via Ujjain to Mahismati (Maheshwar) on the Narmada, and on to Paithan on the Godavari, western Asia and the West.

Objective Question Set 14

1. Who was the author of Amarkosha?

(a) Chandragomina

(b) Amarsingh

(c) Amar Kanta

(d) Kalidasa

2. In Gupta period, which of the languages used by the people of low society level and women?

(a) Sanskrit

(b) Magadhi

(c) Pali

(d) Prakrit

3. Who among the following was called Shakespeare of India?

(a) Kalidas

(b) Patanjali

(c) Chanakya

(d) Gautam

4. Who of the following was the author of Meghadoota?

(a) Vishakhdatta

(b) Vishnusharma

(c) Kalidas

(d) Bhashkar

5. Who was the author of Kamasutra?

(a) Kalidasa

(b) Vatsyayan

(c) Kamandak

(d) Chandragomin

Solutions Set 14

1. (b)

2. (d)

3. (a)

4. (c)

5. (b)

Explanation Set 14

1. (b) Amarsingh was the author of Amarkosha. Amara seems to have been a Buddhist, and most of his work was destroyed, with the exception of what is the celebrated Amara-Kosha (Treasury of Amara), a vocabulary of Sanskrit roots, in three books, and hence sometimes called Trikanda or the “Tripartite”. It is also known as “Namalinganushasana”. It contains 10,000 words, and is arranged, like other works of its class. The first chapter of the Kosha was printed in Rome in Tamil character in 1798.

2. (d) In the Gupta period, the language used by the people of low society level and women was prakrit. The word, derived from its Indian root “Parikrit”, itself has a flexible definition, being defined sometimes as, “original, natural, artless, normal, ordinary, usual”, or “vernacular”, in contrast to the literary and religious orthodoxy of sanskrita. Alternatively, Prakrit can be taken to mean “derived from an original,” means evolved in natural way.

3. (a) Kalidasa was called Shakespeare of India. Numerous works have been attributed to his authorship. Most of them, however, are either by lesser poets bearing the same name or by others of some intrinsic worth, whose works simply chanced to be associated with Kalidasa’s name, their own names having long before ceased to be remembered. Only seven are generally considered genuine.

4. (c) Kalidas was the author of Meghadoota. Meghadoota, as perhaps nowhere else so plentifully in Kalidasa’s works, are an unvarying freshness of inspiration and charm, delight imagery and fancy, profound insight into the emotions, and a oneness with the phenomena of nature. Moreover, the fluidity and beauty of the language are probably unmatched in Sanskrit literature, a feature all the more remarkable for its inevitable loss in translation.

5. (b) Vatsyayan was the author of Kamasutra. Vatsyayana’s Kamasutra has 1250 verses, distributed in 36 chapters, which are further organized into seven parts. Historians attribute Kamasutra to be composed between 400 BCE and 200 CE. Keay says that the Kamasutra is a compendium that was collected into its present form in the 2nd century CE.

Objective Question Set 15

1. Who was the founder of Nyaya Darshan?

(a) Patanjali

(b) Gautam

(c) Kapil

(d) Jaimini

2. Who was the court poet of Kumargupta?

(a) Kalidasa

(b) Veersena

(c) Vatsabhatti

(d) Vishnusharma

3. Who explained that the earth rotates on its axis but revolves round the sun?

(a) Bhashkar

(b) Brahmagupta

(c) Varahamihir

(d) Aryabhatta

4. Which was the second capital of Chandragupta

Vikramaditya ?

(a) Rajagriha

(b) Mathura

(c) Ujjain

(d) Vidisha

5. Who established Nalanda University?

(a) Chandragupta I

(b) Chandragupta II

(c) Kumargupta

(d) Skandgupta

Solutions Set 15

1. (b)

2. (c)

3. (d)

4. (c)

5. (c)

Explanation Set 15

1. (b) Gautam was the founder of Nyaya Darshan. The system is based on Nyaya Sutras of Gautam who is supposed to have lived around 3rd BC. This system investigates into both physical and metaphysical subjects by the syllogistic method. Thus, it includes metaphysics as well as the science of logic.

2. (c) Vatsabhatti was the court poet of Kumargupta. Samudragupta by Harisena and the Mandasor Inscription of Kumargupta by Vatsabhatti. Besides, information on Indian educational system have been culled out from Buddhist and Jain literature along with corroboratory account recorded by foreign travellers like Fa-hien, Hiuen Tsang and I-tsing of China and Hwui Lun of Korea.

3. (d) Aryabhatta explained that the earth rotates on its axis but revolves round the sun. Aryabhatta was the first to explain how the Lunar eclipse and the Solar eclipse happened. Aryabhatta also gave close approximation for Pi. In the Aryabhatiya, he wrote : “Add 4 to 100, multiply by 8, then add 62000 and then divided by 20000. The result is approximately the circumference of a circle of diameter twenty thousand.

4. (c) Ujjain was the second capital of Chandragupta Vikramaditya.

5. (c) Kumargupta established Nalanda University. Nalanda flourished between the reign of the Sakraditya (whose identity is uncertain and who might have been either Kumargupta I or Kumargupta II) and 1197 AD, supported by patronage from the Hindugupta rulers as well as Buddhist emperors like Harsha and later emperors from the Pala empire.

Objective Question Set 16

1. During which period, the great epics of Ramayan and Mahabharat were given the final form?

(a) Nanda period

(b) Maurya period

(c) Post Maurya period

(d) Gupta period

2. What was the land revenue during Gupta period?

(a) 1/2

(b) 1/3

(c) 2/3

(d) 1/6 to 1/4

3. Where was the centre of higher education during Gupta period?

(a) Nalanda

(b) Vidisha

(c) Pataliputra

(d) Takshashila

4. Which period is known as golden age of Indian history?

(a) Vedic period

(b) Nanda period

(c) Maurya period

(d) Gupta period

5. Who was Dhanavantri?

(a) A Chemist

(b) A Physician

(c) A Philosopher

(d) A Surgeon

Solutions Set 16

1. (d)

2. (d)

3. (a)

4. (b)

5. (d)

Explanation Set 16

1. (d) During the Gupta period, the great epics of Ramayan and Mahabharat were given the final form. Traditionally, the authorship of the Mahabharata is attributed to Vyasa. There have been many attempts to unravel its historical growth and compositional layers. The oldest preserved parts of the text are thought to be not much older than around 400 BCE, though the origins of the epic probably fall between the 8th and 9th centuries BCE.

2. (d) The land revenue during Gupta period was 1/6 to 1/4. The government revenue essentially came from land as commercial activity was no longer as big a contributor as it once was. Land revenue came from a variety of sources, like direct tax on the land as well as a tax on the produce of the land.

3. (a) Nalanda was the centre of higher education during Gupta period. Nalanda, situated near Rajgriha in Bihar, was probably the highest seat of Buddhist learning. It was established as a Buddhist monastery probably during the reign of Kumargupta I (414–445 A.D). A Buddhist tradition says that Sakraditya established this centre of learning. It was spread over an area of 1.6 km × 0.8 km. It had about 1500 professors and 10,000 students. Such eminent people as Panini, Jivaka and Chanakya are said to have studied there.

4. (d) Gupta period is known as the golden age of Indian history, as they issued a large number of gold coins.

5. (b) Dhanavantri was a physician. Dhanvantari is depicted as Vishnu with four hands, holding medical herbs in one hand and a pot containing rejuvenating nectar called amrita in another. He is often shown with a leech in his hand rather than the scriptures. The Puranas state that Dhanavantari emerged from the ‘Ocean of Milk’ and appeared with the pot of nectar during the story of the Samudra or Sagar Manthan whilst the ocean was being churned by the Devas and Asuras, using the Mandara mountain and the serpent Vasuki.

Objective Question Set 17

1. Who declared the ‘Law of Gravity’ long before the Newton’s law ?

(a) Aryabhatta

(b) Prithuyasas

(c) Brahmagupta

 (d) Varahamihira

2. Gold coins attributed to Harsha depict on the reverse

(a) Avalokitesvara

(b) Tara

(c) Surya

(d) Shiva-Parvati

3. Who is credited with the establishment of the Vikramashila Mahavihara?

(a) Harsha

(b) Bhaskaravarman

(c) Dharmapala

(d) Vijayasena

4. The famous commentator of Vedic literature, associated with the Paramaras was

(a) Apararka

(b) Kshirasvamin

(c) Soyana

(d) Uvata

5. Ladies had comparatively a greater participation in administration under

(a) Chalukyas

(b) Cholas

(c) Kalachuris

(d) Pratiharas

Solutions Set 17

1. (c)

2. (d)

3. (d)

4. (d)

5. (a)

Explanation Set 17

1. (c) Brahmagupta declared the ‘Law of Gravity’ long before the Newton’s Law. The great 7th century Indian mathematician and astronomer Brahmagupta wrote some important works on both mathematics and astronomy. He was from the state of Rajasthan of northwest India (he is often referred to as Bhillamalacharya, the teacher from Bhillamala), and later became the head of the astronomical observatory at Ujjain in central India.

2. (d) Gold coins attributed to Harsha depict on the reverse Shiva-Parvati. The Gupta period is considered the “Golden Age” of classical India. This was a time when great universities flourished in Nalanda and Takshashila, and great writers, such as the playwright Kalidasa, and great scientists, such as the mathematician and astronomer Aryabhata is credited with the concept of zero among his many achievements, helped create an atmosphere of tremendous creative impulse.

3. (c) Dharampala credited with the establishment of the Vikramashila Mahavihara. Vikramshila Mahavihara was one of the two most important centres of Buddhist learning in India during the Pala dynasty. Established by king Dharmapala (783 to 820 CE), it is located about 50 km east of Bhagalpur and about 13 km north-east of Kahalgaon railway station on Bhagalpur-Sahebganj section of eastern railway. The area is under the protected jurisdiction of Archaeological Survey of India (ASI).

4. (d) The famous commentator of Vedic literature, associated with the Parmaras was Uvata. The Parmar dynasty was an early medieval Indian royal house that ruled over the Malwa region in central India. This dynasty was founded by Upendra in c. 800; the most significant ruler was Bhoja I. The seat of the Parmar kingdom was Dhangraja, the present day Dhar city in Madhya Pradesh.

5. (a) Women had comparatively a greater participation in administration under Chalukyas.Some women from the royal family enjoyed political power in administration. Queen Vijayanka was a noted Sanskrit poetess, Kumkumadevi, the younger sister of Vijayaditya (and queen of Alupa king Chitravahana) made several grants and had a Jain Basadi called Anesajjebasadi constructed at Puligere.

Objective Question Set 18

1. Who among the following exposed evils of the contemporary society by his satirical writings?

(a) Vishakhadatta

(b) Banabhatta

(c) Kalhana

(d) Kshemendra

2. Who among the following considered themselves ‘Brahma-Kshatriya’?

(a) Chalukyas

(b) Cholas

(c) Palas

(d) Senas

3. The term ‘Mandapika’ occurring in early medieval inscriptions denotes

(a) Hermitage

(b) Custom house

(c) Rest house

(d) Assembly hall

4. Who among the following assumed the title ‘Nihsanka – ‘Sankara’ ?

(a) Basava

(b) Sankaracharya

(c) Rajendra Chola

(d) Ballalasen

5. Who is the last king described in the Rajatarangini of Kalhna?

(a) Anantavarman

(b) Chandrapida

(c) Jayasimha

(d) Muktapida

Solutions Set 18

1. (a)

2. (d)

3. (c)

4. (d)

5. (c)

Explanation Set 18

1. (a) Vishakhadatta exposed evils of the contemporary society by his satirical writings. There is no unanimity among the authorities on the date of Mudrarakshasa. However, majority of them are in favour of assigning the composition of this Sanskrit work to 4th–5th centuries AD. The Minister Signet’s Ring centres around the schemes of the wily Chankya to frustrate the plots of Raksasa, the minister of Dhanananda, the last ruler of the Nanda dynasty.

2. (d) Senas considered themselves ‘Brahma- Kshatriya’. Brahmakshatriya or Murdhabhishikta is (a) a term applied in Hindu Varna division to people who have a Brahmin father and a Kshatriya mother; or (b) a term that applies, in the Hindu Varna division, to a Brahmin who pursues royalty, and hence concurrently adopts the Kshatriya Varna. According to Manusmriti, such people are treated equal to Brahmins. Parasurama is a classical example of a Brahmakshatriya.

3. (c) The term ‘Mandapika’ occurring in early medieval inscriptions denotes rest house. When there are several Mandapas in the temple, it is the biggest and the tallest. It is used for conducting religious discourses. Sometimes, the Mahamandapa is also built along a transversal axis with a transept (bumped-out portions along this transversal axis). At the exterior, the transept ends by a large window which brings light and freshness into the temple.

4. (d) Ballalasena assumed the title ‘Nihsanka-sankara’. According to Sena epigraph, Ballal was an author. He wrote Danasagara in 1168. And in 1169, he started but did not finish writing Adbhutasagara. In Adbhutasagara, it was mentioned that Ballalsen conquered Mithila while Vijaysen was still alive. Besides he introduced the practice of Kulinism.

5. (c) Jayasimha is the last king described in the Rajatarangini of Kalhana. From this, comes Stein’s deduction that Kalhana was not a part of the circle surrounding Jayasimha, the ruling monarch at the time when he was writing the Rajatarangini. Kalhana was born to a Kashmiri minister, Canpaka, who probably served king Harsa of the Lohara dynasty. It is possible that his birthplace was Parihasapura and his birth would have been very early in the 12th century

Objective Question Set 19

1. Who among the following is considered to be the author of the Sangitaraja?

(a) Bhoja

(b) Hemadri

(c) Krishnadevaraya

(d) Rana Kumbha

2. Who among the following was the patron of the Kota school of painting?

(a) Balawant Singh

(b) Govardhan Singh

(c) Savant Singh

(d) Umed Singh

3. Who among the following foreign invaders sacked the Temple of Somnath?

(a) Changez Khan

(b) Amir Timur

(c) Mahmud of Ghazni

(d) Muhammad Ghori

4. Rajashekhara, the author of ‘Karpurmanjari’, was the teacher of

(a) Mahendrapala I

(b) Narsimhavarma II

(c) Bhoja parmara

(d) Yuvarajadeva II

5. Who among the following established the Somapura Mahavihara, a good educational centre of the time?

(a) Dharmapal

(b) Mahipala

(c) Nayapala

(d) Rajyapala

Solutions Set 19

1. (a)

2. (d)

3. (c)

4. (a)

5. (a)

Explanation Set 19

1.(a) Bhoja is considered to be the author of the Sangitaraja. Amongst Rajput rulers, the flowering of arts and culture during Kumbha’s reign is exceeded only by Bhoja Parmara (Bhoja I). Maharana Kumbha is credited with writing the Sangitaraja, the Rasika-priya commentary on the Gitagovinda, the Sudaprabandha, and the Kamaraja-ratisara.

2. (d) Umed singh was the patron of the Kota School of Painting. The Kota school of painting is one of the finest examples of this technique. Kota paintings are known for their depiction of nature and hunting scenes. Painting comprises a very integral part of Rajasthani culture. Woven into these splendid visuals are images of everyday life of the olden times. The development of miniature paintings has been one of the most important contributions of Rajasthan to Indian art.

3. (c) Mahmud of Ghazni was the foreign invaders sacked the temple of Somnath. Mahmud began a series of seventeen raids into northwestern India at the end of the 10th century. Nonetheless, he did not attempt to rule Indian territory except for the Punjab, which was his gateway to India, as Ghazni lay in present day Afghanistan.

4. (a) Rajashekhara, the author of ‘Karpurmanjri’ was the teacher of Mahendrapala I. Rajashekhara was an eminent Sanskrit poet, dramatist and critic. He was court poet of the Gurjara Pratiharas. He wrote Kavyamimamsa between 880 and 920 CE. The work is essentially a practical guide for poets that explains the elements and composition of a good poem. The fame of Rajashekhara rests firmly on his play Karpuramanjari, written in Sauraseni Prakrit.

5. (a) Dharampala established the Somapura Mahavihara, a good educational centre of the time. Somapura Mahavihra, or the Great Monastery, was a renowned intellectual centre until the 12th century. Its layout perfectly adapted to its religious function, this monasterys city represents a unique artistic achievement.

Objective Question Set 20

1. Who was the Chola king under whose reign Brihadishwar Temple of Tanjore was constructed?

(a) Rajendra I

(b) Kulottevnga I

(c) Rajaraja I

(d) Rajadhiraj I

2. How many students were studying in the Nalanda University as mentioned by Hiuen Tsang?

(a) 8,000

(b) 10,000

(c) 12,000

(d) 15,000

3. Who among the following rulers had granted one lakh balotras from his own treasury for the restoration of a mosque at Khambhat?

(a) Bhima I

(b) Chamundaraya

(c) Jayasimha Siddharaja

(d) Kumarapala

4. Who among the following had the title ‘Amoghavarsha’ ?

(a) Munja Paramara

(b) Rajendra Chola

(c) Govinda Chandra Gahadavala

(d) None of these

5. The evidence of water-tax is provided by the inscriptions of

(a) Pratiharas

(b) Gahadavala

(c) Chalukyas

(d) Rashtrakutas

Solutions Set 20

1. (a)

2. (b)

3. (c)

4. (d)

5. (b)

Explanation Set 20

1. (a) Rajendra I was the Chola king and under his reign Brihadishwar temple of Tanjore was constructed. The world’s first complete granite temple, the Brihadeshwara temple is a distinctive example of temple architecture during the Tamil Chola dynasty (ca. 3rd cen. BCE-1279 CE). This temple was originally built during the early 9th century CE by Rajaraja Chola I and dedicated to Shiva.

2. (b) As mentioned by Hiuen Tsang, 10,000 students were studying in the Nalanda University. Founded in the 5th Century AD, Nalanda is known as the ancient seat of learning. 2,000 teachers and 10,000 students from all over the Buddhist world lived and studied at Nalanda, the first Residential International University of the World. A walk in the ruins of the university, takes you to an era, that saw India leading in imparting knowledge, to the world – the era when India was a coveted place for studies. The University flourished during the 5th and 12th century.

3. (c) Jayasimha Siddharaja had granted one lakh balotras from his own treasury for the restoration of a mosque of Khambhat. Jayasimha Siddharaja was the greatest Chalukya king who, in commemoration of his victory against the Paramaras, adopted the title of Avantinatha. During the reign of Bhima II (1178- 1241), Muhammad Ghori made an unsuccessful attempt to subjugate Gujarat in 1178 AD.

4. (d) None of the above had the title ‘Amoghavarsha’. The Arab traveller Sulaiman described Amoghavarsha as one of the four great kings of the world. Sulaiman also wrote that Amoghavarsha respected Muslims and that he allowed the construction of mosques in his cities. Because of his religious temperament, his interest in the arts and literature and his peace-loving nature, historian Panchamukhi has compared him to the emperor Ashoka and given him the honorific “Ashoka of the South”

5. (b) The evidence of water tax is provided by the inscriptions of Gahadavalas The Gahadavalas occupy a very important place in Indian history. They ruled for over a century (AD 1089-1097), over a vast region of North India, which extended from the western bank of Yamuna in the west to Patna, Monghyr and Bodhgaya in Bihar in the east. It extended from the foothills of the Himalayas in the north to Baghelkhanda in Madhya Pradesh in the south.

Objective Question Set 21

1. Which among the following is not found inscribed on Chola coins?

(a) Fish

(b) Bow

(c) Tiger

(d) Elephant

2. A Chaitya Hall at which of the following places was built largely by the donation of the Yavanas?

(a) Ajanta

(b) Bhaja

(c) Junnar

(d) Karle

3. Who among the following rulers of the Chola dynasty carried out the first naval expedition against South-East Asia?

(a) Rajadhiraja

(b) Rajaraja I

(c) Rajendra I

(d) Vira Rajendra

4. Who destroyed the Nalanda University in 1202 AD ?

(a) Muhammad Ghori

(b) Bakhtiyar Khalji

(c) Mahmud of Ghazni

(d) Qutbuddin Aibak

5. Who among the following has been criticized by Kalhana for confiscating the temple treasure?

(a) Avantivarman

(b) Didda

(c) Harsha

(d) Lalitaditya

Solutions Set 21

1. (d)

2. (d)

3. (c)

4. (b)

5. (c)

Explanation Set 21

1. (d) Elephant is not found inscribed on the cholas coins. Rajendra Chola, the son of Rajaraja, is also known as Gangaikonda Chola for his conquest of many principalities in the Gangetic valley. On either side of this coin is found a seated tiger along with lamp-stand, a pair of fish and a bow. Below the lamp-stand, is a two line Sanskrit legend Gangai (ko) da Chola. The other side of this coin is similar to the first side.

2. (d) A Chaitya Hall at Karle was built largely by the donation of the Yavanas. The Chaitya at Karle is, by far, the largest of the cave temples. It is situated at Karle in Pune district of Maharashtra. It is said to have been sculptured between 100–125 AD. It is cut off of a solid rock to a depth of about 124 feet. It is 40 metres long, 15 metres high and 15 metres broad. Inside, there are 37 octagonal pillars of remarkable beauty.

3. (c) Rajendra I of the Chola dynasty carried out the first naval expedition against south-east Asia. He conquered up to the banks of Ganges and assumed the title of “Gangaikonda” (the victor of the Ganges). He established a new capital and named it Gangaikondacholapuram. The conquest of the Andaman and Nicober islands was his greatest achievement.

4. (b) Bakhtiyar Khalji destroyed the Nalanda University in 1202 AD. The prince of perverts – Muhammad Bakhtiyar Khalji – is a blot on the human race. And yet the town of Bakhtiyarpur in Bihar, close to the site of his cruel depredations, bears his name. Bakhtiyar Khalji holds a pride of place because, unlike the other Muslim marauders, he was not content with destroying the areas he traversed.

5. (c) Harsha has been criticised by Kalhana for confiscating the temple. Harsha (r.1089-1111) started out as a capable and noble king. Then ran into financial trouble because of his spending habits, and became an evil person. For the gold, he started raiding temples and started destroying statues. Harsha never felt a “Hindu” king per se as there were people who felt themselves to be “Hindus” in those days.

Objective Question Set 22

1. The Kaivarta rebellion occurred in Bengal during the reign of

(a) Devapala

(b) Vigrahapala

(c) Mahipala II

(d) Ramapala

2. Who among the following Rashtrakuta rulers is known to have made the ‘Hiranya-garbha-dana’ at Ujjaini?

(a) Dantidurga

(b) Dhruva

(c) Govinda III

(d) Amoghavarsha

3. Which among the following coin names occur in the Pratihara inscriptions?

(a) Satamana

(b) Nishka

(c) Dramma

(d) Dinara

4. Who among the following levied Turushka-danda?

(a) Gahadavalas

(b) Chandellas

(c) Chahamanas

(d) Shahis

5. Which of the following sources provides a vivid description of Sindh?

(a) Khazainul Futuh

(b) Tarikh-i-Firoz-Shahi

(c) Insha-i-mehru

(d) Chachnamah

Solutions Set 22

1. (c)

2. (a)

3. (c)

4. (a)

5. (d)

Explanation Set 22

1. (c) The Kaibarta rebellion occurred in Bengal during the reign of Mahipala II. Varendra rebellion occurred during the reign of the Pala emperor Mahipala II (c 1075-1080 AD) and resulted in his death and the loss of Varendra (north Bengal) to the Kaivarta chief Divya. Mahipala II is said to have imprisoned his two brothers, Xurapala and Ramapala, out of suspicion that Ramapala would capture royal power. The possibility of a dynastic trouble arising out of the ambition of a capable younger brother cannot be altogether ruled out.

2. (a) Dantidurga, the Rashtrakuta rulers, is known to have made the Hiranyagarbha-dana’ at Ujjaini. Rashtrakutas were subordinate to the Chalukyas. Dantidurga, a Rashtrakuta chief, threw his Chalukyan overlord and performed Hiranya-garbha, a ritual that is thought to lead to the rebirth of the sacrificer as a Kshatriya. Dantidurga, thus, founded the Rashtrakuta empire.

3. (c) Dramma coin name occurs in the Pratihara inscriptions. Mihira Bhoja I’s epithet was Srimad- Adivaraha (the fortunate primeval boar incarnation of Vishnu) and therefore there is a broad agreement amongst the scholars on the attribution of Adivaraha dramma billon coins to him. These coins have a depiction of Adivaraha on the obverse.

4. (a) Gahadavalas levied Turushka-danda. Gahadavala dynasty rule of the district is proved by the discovery at Kudarkot of a copper plate grant dated in the reign of Chandradeva. Chandradeva founded the Gahadavala dynasty at Kanyakubja after defeating a chief named Gopala of Tuar clan. His jurisdiction extended over nearly all of what is modern Uttar Pradesh including this district.

5. (d) Chachnamah provides a vivid description of Sindh. The Chachnamah was written by Kazi Ismail. Kazi Ismail was appointed the first Kazi of Alor by Muhammad Kasim after the conquest of the Sindh. It was translated into Persian by Muhammad Ali bin Hamid bin Abu Bakr Kufi in 1216 CE from an earlier Arabic text. At one time, it was considered to be a romance until Mountstuart Elphinstone’s observations of its historical veracity. The original work in Arabic is believed to have been composed by the Sakifí family, the kinsmen of Muhammad bin Qasim.

Objective Question Set 23

1. The ethnic composition of the armies of Ghaznavids did not include the

(a) Arabs

(b) Indians

(c) Tajiks

(d) Greeks

2. Who was ruling the Chola kingdom at the time of Mahmud Ghazni’s expedition of Somnath?

(a) Uttama Chola

(b) Rajaraja I

(c) Rajendra I

(d) Kulotenga

3. Gangai Kondacholapuram became the adminis­trative centre of the Cholas from the time of

(a) Parantaka

(b) Rajendra I

(c) Rajaraja I

(d) Vikrama Chola

4. The Chola rulers were generally the worshippers of

(a) Shiva

(b) Vishnu

(c) Sakti

(d) Kartikeya

5. Rajasekhara’s marriage to Avantisundari is an example of

(a) Sagotra marriage

(b) Savarna marriage

(c) Anuloma marriage

(d) Pratiloma marriage

Solutions Set 23

1. (d)

2. (c)

3. (b)

4. (a)

5. (c)

Explanation Set 23

1. (d) The ethnic composition of the armies of Ghaznavids did not invalue the Greeks. The eastern part of the later Roman empire, dating from AD 330 when Constantine I rebuilt Byzantium and made it his capital. Its extent varied greatly over the centuries, but its core remained the Balkan Peninsula and Asia Minor. The empire collapsed when Constantinople fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453.

2. (c) Rajendra I was ruling the Chola kingdom at the time of Mahmud Ghazni’s expedition of Somnath. Rajendra Chola I was the son of Rajaraja Chola I, the great Chola king of present day southern India. He succeeded his father in 1014 CE as the Chola emperor. During his reign, he extended the influences of the already vast Chola empire up to the banks of the river Ganges in the north and across the ocean.

3. (b) ‘Gangai Kondacholapuram’ became the administrative centre of the Cholas from the time of Rajendra I. His empire extended the whole of southern India to river Thungabathra in north India, for administrative and strategic purpose he built another capital and named Gangaikondacholapuram. The Gangaikondacholapuram temple, he constructed, consists of 3 stories and surrounded by a huge fort like wall, the outer wall was greatly destructed during the English rule (1896 AD).

4. (a) The Chola rulers were generally the worshippers of Shiva. A number of mythical heroes and demi-gods found their place in the ancestry claimed by the later Cholas in the long mythical genealogies incorporated into the copper-plate charters and stone inscription of the tenth and eleventh centuries. The earliest version of this is found in the Anbil Plates which gives fifteen names before Vijayalaya Chola including the genuinely historical ones of Karikala, Perunarikalli and Kocengannan.

5. (c) Rajasekhara’s marriage to Avantisundari is an example of ‘Anuloma-marriage’. During the Vedic Age, inter-class marriages used to take place in the form of Anuloma marriage. Anuloma marriage is a social practice according to which a boy from upper Varna/caste/class can marry a girl from lower varna/caste/class.

Objective Question Set 24

1. Who shifted the Chahamana capital from Sambhar to Ajmer?

(a) Ajayaraja

(b) Arnoraja

(c) Vighraharaja

(d) Prithviraja III

2. Kumardevi, the Queen of Govindachandra Gahadavala, constructed Dharmachakra-jina-vihar at

(a) Bodhgaya

(b) Kushinagar

(c) Kannauj

(d) Sarnath

3. Who among the following issued coins with seated Lakshmi on one side and ruler’s name in Devanagri on the other?

(a) Mohammad Ghori

(b) Mahmud Ghazni

(c) Jainul Abidin

(d) Akbar

4. The Huna princess Avalladevi was the Queen of

(a) Gangeyadeva

(b) Karna

(c) Dharmapala

(d) Kumarapala

5. The Kirti-Stambha at Chittor was built by

(a) Rana Sanga

(b) Rana Kumbha

(c) Rana Pratap

(d) Rana Udaisingh

Solutions Set 24

1. (a)

2. (d)

3. (a)

4. (a)

5. (b)

Explanation Set 24

1. (a) Ajayaraja shifted the Chahamana capital from Sambhar to Ajmer. Arnoraja’s fight against Turushka, i.e. the Yaminis of Lahore and Ghazna was an inheritance from his father Ajayaraja who perhaps never succeeded in recovering Nagaur from Muslims. Very early in Arnoraja’s reign, the Muslims had reached as far as Ajmer. In the battle that followed on the plain outside the city, the Yamini commander was decisively beaten and fled before the pursuing Chauhana.

2. (d) Kumardevi, the queen of Govindachandra Gahadavala constructed Dharmachakrajinavihar at Sarnath. Kumaradevi, the Buddhist queen of the great Gahadavala king Govindrachandra of Kashi (CE 1114-1154). All the halls and apartments of the monks have disappeared. This monastery had two gateways towards the east, there being a distance of 88.45 m between the two. At the western most edge of the site, a distinct covered passage leads to a small medieval shrine.

3. (a) Mohammad Ghori issued the coins with seated Lakshmi on one side and ruler’s name in Devanagri on the other. These were revived by Gangeyadeva the Kalachuri ruler who issued the ‘Seated Lakshmi Coins’ which were copied by later rulers both in gold as well as in debase form. The Bull & Horseman types of coins were the most common motif appearing on coins struck by the Rajput clans. In western India, imported coins like the Byzantine Solidi were often used reflecting trade with the Eastern Roman Empire.

4. (a) The Huna princess Avalladevi was the queen of Gangeyadeva. Their son Allata married a Huna princess named Hariyadevi. The Jabbalpore copper-plate inscription of Yasahkarnadeva, of the Kalachuri dynasty of Chedi 17 describes Yasahkarnadeva as the son of king Karnadeva and Avalladevi, a Huna princess.

5. (b) The Kirtistambha at Chittor was built by Rana Kumbha. The Kirtistambha (tower of fame) dedicated to Lord Adinath was constructed by Baghervala merchant Sah Jija by using “Nijabhujoparjita”, i.e. self-earned money, according to an inscription by his great-grandson who had the monument repaired in 1489. The exact date of building of the Kirti-stambha is not known. Some believe that Sah Jija had an older tower rebuilt, perhaps from 12th cent.

Objective Question Set 25

1. Harsha had assumed the title

(a) Parama-Bhagavata

(b) Parama-Mahesvara

(c) Parama-Saugata

(d) Parama-Adityabhah

2. The Chola rulers were generally

(a) Saivites

(b) Vaisnavites

(c) Worshippers of Mother goddess

(d) Worshippers of Kartikeya

3. Who among the following took strong steps to stop gambling in his state?

(a) Bhoja Paramara

(b) Kalchuri Karna

(c) Kumarapala

(d) Jayasimha Siddharaja

4. The Turkish brought with them musical instruments

(a) Rabab and Sarangi

(b) Sitar and Flute

(c) Veena and Tabla

(d) Tanpura and Mridang

5. Jonaraja, in his Rajatarangini, continued the historical narration of Kalhana upto

(a) Jayasimha

(b) Sultan Sikandar

(c) Sultan Zainul Abidin

(d) Muhammad Shah

Solutions Set 25

1. (b)

2. (a)

3. (c)

4. (a)

5. (c)

Explanation Set 25

1. (b) Harsha had assumed the title Parama- Maheswara. An early copper plate grant of king Dantidurga (753) shows an image of god Shiva and the coins of his successor, king Krishna I (768), bear the legend Parama-Maheshwara (another name for Shiva). The kings’ titles such as Veeranarayana showed their Vaishnava leanings. Their flag had the sign of the Ganges and Yamuna rivers, perhaps copied from the Badami Chalukyas.

2. (a) The Chola rulers were generally Saivites. Among the existing specimens in museums around the world and in the temples of South India may be seen many fine figures of Shiva in various forms, such as Vishnu and his consort Lakshmi, and the Saivaite saints. Though conforming generally to the iconographic conventions established by long tradition, the sculptors worked with great freedom in the 11th and the 12th centuries to achieve a classic grace and grandeur. The best example of this can be seen in the form of Nataraja the Divine Dancer.

3. (c) Kumargupta took strong steps to stop gambling in his state. As because of gambling, there were various crimes spread in society. For that he appointed some persons in different regions to give report of illegal acts.

4. (a) The Turkish brought with them musical instruments Rabab and Sarangi. During this time, the music of North India began to acquire and adapt to the presence of Persian language, music, and musical instruments, such as the Setar, from which the Sitar got its name; the Kemancheh and Santur, which became popular in Kashmir; and the Rabab [alternately known as Rebab and Rubab], which preceded the Sarod. New instruments were introduced, including the Tabla and Sitar.

5. (c) Jonaraja, in his Rajatarangini continued the historical narration of Kalhana up to Sultan Zainul Abidin. Rajatarangini, which consists of 7,826 verses, is divided into eight books. Book I attempts to weave imaginary tales of Kashmir kings into epic legends. Gonanda was the first king and a contemporary and enemy of the Hindu deity Krishna.

Objective Question Set 26

1. Who among the following is famous for his commentary on Manusmriti?

(a) Visvarupa

(b) Vijnanesvara

(c) Medhatithi

(d) Apararka

2. Harsha’s military expansion in the Deccan was checked by

(a) Mahendravarman

(b) Dantidurga

(c) Rajendra

(d) Pulkesin II

3. The first meeting of Ghosal with Mahavira Swami was held at

(a) Champa

(b) Vaishali

(c) Takshashila

(d) Nalanda

4. Who of the following adopted Garuda’s dynasty emblem after the imperial Guptas?

(a) Rashtrakutas

(b) Western Chalukyas

(c) Shilaharas

(d) Chedis

5. The north Indian dynasties that confronted the Rashtrakutas were

(a) The Pratiharas and the Paramaras

(b) The Palas and the Chandelas

(c) The Pratiharas and the Palas

(d) The Chalukyas and the Chahamans

Solutions Set 26

1. (c)

2. (d)

3. (d)

4. (a)

5. (c)

Explanation Set 26

1. (c) Medhatithi is famous for his commentary on Manusmriti. Medhātithi is one of the oldest and most famous commentators on the Manusmriti, more commonly known as the Laws of Manu. The Manusmriti text is a part of the Hindu Dharmasas tradition, which attempts to record the laws of Dharma.

2. (d) Harsha’s military expansion in the Deccan was checked by Pulkesin II.When Pulikeshi II pushed forth up to the Narmada, he came face to face with Harshavardhana of Kanauj who already had the title Uttarapatheshvara (Lord of the north). In a decisive battle fought on the banks of the river Narmada, Harsha lost a major part of his elephant force and had to retreat. The Aihole inscription describes how the mighty Harsha lost his harsha (joy) when he suffered the ignominy of defeat.

3. (d) The first meeting of Ghosal with Mahavir Swami was held at Nalanda. Parsva, the traditional predecessor of Mahavira is the first Jain figure for whom there is reasonable historical evidence. He might have lived somewhere in the 9th–7th century BCE. Followers of Parsva are mentioned in the canonical books; and a legend in the Uttarādhyayana sūtra relates a meeting between a disciple of Parsva and a disciple of Mahavira which brought about the union of the old branch of the Jain church and the new one.

4. (a) Rashtrakutas adopted Garuda as dynastic emblem after the imperial Gupta. Silver coins of the Gupta kings Chandragupta II and his son Kumargupta I adopted the Western Satrap design (itself derived from the Indo-Greeks) with bust of the ruler and pseudo-Greek inscription on the obverse, and a royal eagle (Garuda, the dynastic symbol of the Guptas) replacing the Chaitya hill with star and crescent on the reverse.

5. (c) The North Indian dynasties that confronted the Rashtrakutas were the Pratiharas and the Palas. The Pratiharas are believed to be the clan of Rajputs. The greatest ruler of the Pratihara dynasty was Mihir Bhoja. He recovered Kanauj (Kanyakubja) by 836, and it remained the capital of the Pratiharas for almost a century. The Pratihara dynasty started well under the ruler Nagabhatta-I. Though initially he had hiccups with the Rashtrakutas, he was able to leave behind a strong State comprising Malwa, parts of Rajputana and Gujarat

Objective Question Set 27

1. ‘Niralamba Saraswati’ thus lamented a poet at the demise of

(a) Chahmana Visaladeva

(b) Chandela Kirtivarma

(c) Mihira Bhoja

(d) Bhoja Paramara

2. The Vikramshila Mahavihara, the renowed educational centre of Pala period at

(a) Antichak

(b) Aphasad

(c) Basarh

(d) Chandimau

3. Which of the following temples does not belong to the Cholas?

(a) Brihadishwara

(b) Koranganatha

(c) Kalilashnatha

(d) Airavateshwar

4. Who of the following Rajput rulers gave donation for the reconstruction of a mosque?

(a) Mihir Bhoja

(b) Bhoja Parmar

(c) Prithviraj III

(d) Jaisingh Siddharaj

5. Which dynasty do the Arab writers refer to when they say that the women did not cover their faces with veil?

(a) Pala

(b) Pratihara

(c) Rashtrakutas

(d) Cholas

Solutions Set 27

1. (d)

2. (a)

3. (c)

4. (d)

5. (d)

Explanation Set 27

1. (d) ‘Niralamba Saraswati’ thus lamented a poet at the demise of Bhoj Paramara. Raja Bhoja of Dhar was a philosopher king and polymath of medieval India. He was from the Paramara dynasty of Arya, who ruled the kingdom of Malwa in Central India from about 1010 to 1060. On his demise, a poet lamented “Adya Dhara Niradhara, Niralamba Saraswati Panditah Khanditah Sarve Bhojraje Divam Gate”.

2. (a) Vikramshila Mahavihara was one of the two most important centres of Buddhist learning in India during the Pala dynasty. Established by King Dharmapala (783 to 820 CE), it is located about 50 km east of Bhagalpur and about 13 km north-east of Kahalgaon railway station on Bhagalpur-Sahebganj section of eastern railway. The area is under the protected jurisdiction of Archaeological Survey of India (ASI).

3. (c) Kailashnatha temples do not belong to the Cholas. King Rajasimha, of the Pallava dynasty, built this Shiva temple in the early 8th century. It is an early structural temple, built of sandstone, and partly renovated in recent times. The modest scale of the temple, and the closeness of its enclosing wall, lend a feeling of intimacy to the surroundings. Kailasanatha contains in embryo many of the features of the rapidly emerging South Indian style: gopuras, pilastered walls, a pyramidal Shikhara, and a perimeter wall enclosing the complex.

4. (d) Rajput rulers Jaisingh Siddharaj gave donation for the reconstruction of a mosque. Siddhraj is said to have ascended the throne of Patan after the death of his Father Karandev. Patan’s condition was worse in the last days of Karandev. The successors from his grandfather Bhimdev’s first wife Bauladevi tried their best to acquire the throne from child Jaysingh. His mother Minaldevi, Maha mantri Santu and Munjal Mehta initially played a great part to deter the internal revolt and in establishing his rule and stability to Patan in Gujarat.

5. (d) Chola dynasty is meant by Arab writers when they say that the women did not cover their faces with veil. This clan came to be known as the Rashtrakutas of Manyakheta, rising to power in South India in At the same time, the Pala dynasty of Bengal and the Pratihara dynasty of Malwa were gaining force in eastern and northwestern India respectively. An Arabic writing Silsilatuttavarikh (851) called the Rashtrakutas one of the four principal empires of the world.

Objective Question Set 28

1. Which one of the following Chola rulers had persecuted Ramanuja and Ousted him from his Kingdom?

(a) Kulotunga I

(b) Kulotunga II

(c) Adhirajendra

(d) Rajaraja I

2. Which of the following refers to ‘Pushyabhuti’ as the founder of the Vardhana dynasty?

(a) Kadambari

(b) Harshacharita

(c) Banskhera Inscription of Harsha

(d) Yuan-Chwang

3. Which Chola emperor received a letter on golden leaves from the Burmese king Kyansittha?

(a) Rajaraja I

(b) Rajendra I

(c) Kulottunga I

(d) Rajadhiraja I

4. Which one of the following was the primary assembly in the Chola village administration?

(a) Nadu

(b) Sabha

(c) Ur

(d) Mahasabha

5. A Chalukya inscription is dated in the year 556 of the Saka era. It is equivalent to

(a) 478 AD

(b) 499 AD

(c) 613 AD

(d) 634 AD

Solutions Set 28

1. (a)

2. (b)

3. (d)

4. (c)

5. (a)

Explanation Set 28

1. (a) Kulotinga I Chola ruler had persecuted Ramanuja and ousted him from his kingdom. Ramanuja was the contemporary of Kulothunga II. It is Kulothunga II who banished Ramanuja from Tamil country and the latter had to seek refuge in Melkote, Karnataka. Hence even bringing Ramunaja into Athirajendra’s death would cause more confusion. Till Kulothunga II, all the Chola kings and emperors supported all the religions equally although they were staunch Saivaites.

2. (b) Harshacharita refers to pushyabhuti as the founder of the Vardhana dynasty. Prabhakara Vardhana, the ruler of Sthanvisvara, who belonged to the Pushyabhuti family, extended his control over neighbouring states. Prabhakara Vardhana was the first king of the Vardhana dynasty with his capital at Thaneswar.

3. (d) Rajadhiraja I received a letter on golden leaves from the Burmese king Kyansittha. Kyansittha strengthened the foundations of Pagan empire which Anawrahta had built. Although he suppressed the Mon rebellion, he pursued a conciliatory policy towards the Mon. Having spent seven years in the Mon country in exile, the king had great respect for the Mon culture, and kept Mon scholars at his court.

4. (c) Ur was the primary village assembly in the Chola village administration. Every village was a self-governing unit. A number of such villages constituted a Korram in different parts of the country. Taniyur was a large village big enough to be a Kurram by itself. A number of Kurrams constituted a Valanadu. Several Valanadus made up one Mandalam, a province. At the height of the Chola empire, there were eight or nine of these provinces including Sri Lanka. These divisions and names underwent constant changes throughout the Chola period.

5. (a) A Chalukya inscription is dated in the year 556 of the Saka era. It’s equivalent to 478 AD. This undated inscription belongs to the reign of the Chalukaya king Vijayaditya Satyasraya. It registers the grant of 20 mattars of red soil, a matter of wetland and 2 matters of garden land to Talereyar by Vikramaditya, the uncle of Banarja when the latter was ruling Turamara-vishaya as the king’s feudatory. It also states that Vikramaditya had the birudas Taruna-Vasantan and Samanta-kesari and that he was ruling Ayiradi. The inscription was written by Singutti.

Objective Question Set 29

1. Vikramshila Mahavihar was established by the ruler of

(a) Pushyabhuti dynasty

(b) Barman dynasty

(c) Sen dynasty

(d) Pala dynasty

2. Which dynasty constructed the Ellora Kailash Temple?

(a) Rashtrakuta

(b) Satvahan

(c) Maurya

(d) Pulkasya

3. The Lakshman Era was started by which of the following dynasty?

(a) Pratiharas

(b) Palas

(c) Chauhans

(d) Senas

4. Kumaradevi, a queen of Govinda Chandra Gahadavala, constructed Dharma-chakra-Jina Vihara at

(a) Bodhgaya

(b) Rajgrih

(c) Kushinagar

(d) Sarnath

5. Which of the following dynasties frequently assigned to the ladies high ranking positions in administration?

(a) Chola

(b) Chalukya

(c) Pala

(d) Sena

Solutions Set 29

1. (d)

2. (a)

3. (d)

4. (d)

5. (b)

Explanation Set 29

1. (d) Vikramshila Mahavihar was established by the ruler of pala dynasty. Pala Dynasty was the ruling dynasty in Bihar and Bengal, from the 8th to the 12th century. Called the Palas because all their names ended in Pala, “protector”, the Palas rescued Bengal from the chaos into which it had fallen after the death of Shashanka, a rival of Harsha of Kanauj. The founder of the dynasty was Gopala.

2. (a) Rashtrakuta constructed the Ellora Kailash Temple. Kailash Temple is situated near the village of Ellora, 30 km from Aurangabad. The temple is considered as one of the most astonishing buildings in the history of architecture. This is one of the largest 34 excavations at Ellora, which took almost a century. Kailash Temple is dedicated to Lord Shiva. The idol measures 109 feet wide by 164 feet long.

3. (d) The Lakshman Era was started by Senas dynasty. Vijaysen the second ruler of this dynasty defeated the last Pala emperor Madanapala and established his reign. Ballal Sena introduced caste system in Bengal and made Nabadwip the capital. The fourth king of this dynasty Lakshman Sena expanded the empire beyond Bengal to Bihar, Assam, Orissa and probably to Varanasi.

4. (d) Kumaradevi, a queen of Govindachandra Gahadavala, constructed Dharmachakra-Jina Vihara at Sarnath. Monastery lying 232 m from east to west and occupied by a central block of buildings, Dharmachakra Jina Vihara was the gift of Kumaradevi, the Buddhist queen of the great Gahadavala king Govindrachandra of Kashi (CE 1114-1154). All the halls and apartments of the monks have disappeared.

5. (b) Chalukya dynasties were frequently assigned to the ladies high ranking positions in administration. During this period, the society became increasingly sophisticated. The status of women was varied. Some royal women were involved in administrative matters as shown in contemporary records describing Queen Umadevi’s administration of Halebidu in the absence of Veera Ballala II during his long military campaigns in northern territories.

Objective Question Set 30

1. Which of the following was not composed by Harshavardhana?

(a) Harshacharita

(b) Ratnavali

(c) Priyadarshika

(d) Nagananda

2. In which court was a Chinese embassy sent by T’ang emperor?

(a) Rajaraja I

(b) Rajendra I

(c) Harshavardhana

(d) Prantaka I

3. The Rock-cut temples of Mahabalipuram were built under the patronage of the

(a) Chola kings

(b) Pandya kings

(c) Pallava kings

(d) Satavahan kings

4. Who wrote the ‘Harshacharita’?

(a) Kalidasa

(b) Banabhatta

(c) Vishnugupta

(d) Parimalgupta

5. The religious conferences were held by king Harshavardhana at

(a) Kannauj and Prayag

(b) Prayag and Thaneshwar

(c) Thaneshwar and Vallabhi

(d) Vallabhi and Prayag

Solutions Set 30

1. (a)

2. (c)

3. (c)

4. (b)

5. (a)

Explanation Set 30

1. (a) Harshacharita was not composed by Harshavardhana. The Harshacharita ranks as the first historical biography in Sanskrit although it is written in a florid and fanciful style. Bana’s detailed and vivid descriptions of rural India’s natural environment as well as the extraordinary industry of the Indian people exudes the vitality of life at that time. Since he received the patronage of the emperor Harsha, his descriptions of his patron are not an unbiased appraisal and present the emperor’s actions in an overly favourable light.

2. (c) In Harshavardhana court, a Chinese embassy was sent by T’ang emperor. The T’ang dynasty was formed in 618 due to the failed exhibitions to Korea by the Sui, which had led to conflicts in the north of China. The T’ang’s founder, Li Yuan was a rebel from an aristocratic family (traced from the Han) that was influential under the Northern Zhou. The T’ang took some time to establish, in part due to a rebellion in 617 that took several years to succeed with the help of the Turks.

3. (c) The Rock-cut temples of Mahabalipuram were built under the patronage of the Pallava kings. Mahabalipuram lies on the Coromandel coast which faces the Bay of Bengal. This is an elegant place to watch which was a well-established sea port during the 7th and 10th centuries of the Pallava dynasty. This was the second capital of the Pallavas who ruled Kanchipuram.

4. (b) Harshacharita was written by Banabhatta. Banabhatta was born around the 7th century in a village in India. He was born in Pritikuta village, which was situated on the banks of Hiranyavahu. This village used to exist in the district, which is now called, Chhapra. He was born to Chitrabhanu and Rajadevi and his was a family of Vatsyayana Gotra. Born in a Brahman family, he was a poor but a clever child. Even during his childhood, he showed signs of great potential and finished his education with much dedication and hard work.

5. (a) The religious conference was held by king Harshavardhana at Kannauj and Prayag. A the courier brought the distressing intelligence that Grahavarman, king of Kanauj, and husband of Rajyasri, sister of the princes, had been slain by the King of Malwa, who cruelly misused the princess, “confining her like a brigand’s wife, with a pair of iron fetters kissing her feet.” The young king, resolute to avenge his sister’s wrongs, started at once with a mobile force of ten thousand cavalry, leaving the elephants and heavy troops behind in his brother’s charge.

Objective Question Set 31

1. Who sent Heiun-Tsang as an envoy to Harsha’s court?

(a) Tai Tsung

(b) Tung-Kuan

(c) Ku Yen-wa

(d) None of these

2. Where was the capital of Sasanka?

(a) Samatata

(b) Tamralipta

(c) Karna-swarna

(d) Lakhmawati

3. Emperor Harsha’s southward march was stopped on the Narmada river by

(a) Pulkesin I

(b) Pulkesin II

(c) Vikramaditya I

(d) Vikramaditya II

4. Who built the Khajuraho temples?

(a) Holkars

(b) Scindias

(c) Bundela

(d) Chandela

5. Arabs were defeated in 738 AD by

(a) Pratiharas

(b) Rashtrakutas

(c) Palas

(d) Chalukyas

Solutions Set 31

1. (a)

2. (c)

3. (b)

4. (d)

5. (a)

Explanation Set 31

1. (a) Tai Tsung sent Hiuen-Tsang as envoy to Harsha’s court. According to the Chinese pilgrim Xuanzang, who visited his kingdom in 636, Harsha built numerous Stupas in the name of Buddha. Xuanzang entered a grand competition organized by Harsha and won the theological debate. Harsha also became a patron of art and literature. He made numerous endowments to the University at Nalanda.

2. (c) Karnaswarna was the capital of Sasanka. Hiuen- Tsang gives a graphic description of Karnasarna, which acquaints us with the locality and its people. According to him, “the country was well inhabited and the people were very rich. The land was low and moist, farming operations were regular, flowers and fruits were abundant, the climate was temperate and the people were of good character and were patrons of learning.” This description indicates the prosperous state of the country.

3. (b) Emperor Harsha’s southward march was stopped on the Narmada river by Pulkesin II. When Pulakesin II (c. ad 610-643), eldest son of Kirtivarman, came of age, he claimed the throne at Vatapi but was resisted by his uncle, Mangalesa. With the assistance of his brothers Vishnuvardhana and Jayasimha, Pulakesin defeated and killed Mangalesa and ascended the throne in c. ad 610.

4. (d) Chandela built the Khajuraho temples. Chandela, also spelled Candella, Rajput clan of Gond origin that for some centuries ruled Bundelkhand in north-central India and fought against the early Muslim invaders. The first Chandela is thought to have ruled early in the 9th century CE. Chandela dominion extended from the Yamuna (Jumna) river in the north to the region of Saguar (now Sagar) and from the Dhasan river in the west to the Vindhya hills.

5. (a) Arabs were defeated by Pratiharas in 738 AD. Indian inscriptions confirm this invasion but record the Arab success only against the smaller states in Gujarat. They also record the defeat of the Arabs at two places. The southern army moving south into Gujarat was repulsed at Navsari by the south Indian emperor Vikramaditya II of the Chalukya dynasty and Rashtrakutas.

Objective Question Set 32

1. The Dilwara temple is located at

(a) Bhubaneswar

(b) Aurangabad

(c) Khajuraho

(d) Mount Abu

2. Who founded the four Mathas in the four corners of India?

(a) Shankaracharya

(b) Ramanujacharya

(c) Bhaskaracharya

(d) Madhvacharya

3. The Lingaraja Temple built during the medieval period is at

(a) Bhubaneswar

(b) Khajuraho

(c) Madurai

(d) Mount Abu

4. The presiding deity of Bhojsala Temple is

(a) Goddess Durga

(b) Goddess Laxmi

(c) Goddess Saraswati

(d) Goddess Parvati

5. Which one of the following is not a feature of North Indian temple architecture?

(a) Shikhara

(b) Garbha Griha

(c) Gopuram

(d) Pradakshina-path

Solutions Set 32

1. (d)

2. (a)

3. (a)

4. (c)

5. (c)

Explanation Set 32

1. (d) The Dilwara temple is located at Mount Abu. It seems fairly basic temple from outside but the interior showcases the extraordinary work of human craftsmanship at its best. These temples were built between 11th to 13th century AD. The beautiful lush green hills surrounding the temple gives a very pleasant feeling.

2. (a) Sankaracharya founded the four Mathas in the four corners of India. Shankara was born at Kaladi in Kerala as a result of austerities and earnest prayers of his childless parents to Lord Shiva. Shankara’s father Shivaguru and mother Aryambal were Namboodiri Brahmin couples who led a holy life performing Vedic rituals ordained for a householder. However, they were childless.

3. (a) The Lingaraja temple built during the medieval the period is at Bhubaneshwar. The Lingaraj temple – the largest of these is an outstanding specimen of the Orissa style of temple building. It is about a thousand years old. Bhubaneshwar, Konarak and Puri constitute the Golden triangle of Orissa, visited in large numbers by pilgrims and tourists.

4. (c) The presiding diety of Bhojsala temple is goddess Saraswati. Bhojshala is one of the most significant monuments of Madhya Pradesh as a whole as it spots the land of Dhar. It is an ancient monument that had been dedicated to goddess Saraswati. This was the only temple that was dedicated to this deity of the Hindu cult.

5. (c) Gopuram is not a feature of north Indian temple architecture. In the north, the Shikhara remains the most prominent element of the temple and the gateway is usually modest. In the south, enclosure walls were built around the whole complex and along these walls, ideally set along the east-west and north-south axes, elaborate and often magnificent gateways called Gopurams led the devotees into the sacred courtyard.

Objective Question Set 33

1. Rath Temples at Mahabalipuram were built in the reign of which Pallava ruler?

(a) Mahendravarman

(b) Narasinghvarman I

(c) Parameshwarvarman

(d) Nandivarman I

2. Which one of the following Chola kings conquered Ceylon (Sinhal) first ?

(a) Aditya I

(b) Rajaraja I

(c) Rajendra

(d) Vijayalaya

3. The Seven Pagodas of Mahabalipuram are a witness to the art patronised by the

(a) Pallavas

(b) Pandyas

(c) Cholas

(d) Cheras

4. At which of the following places is the famous Kailasha Temple located?

(a) Ajanta

(b) Badami

(c) Chittor

(d) Ellora

5. The famous Idol of Gomteshwar and famous Jain temple is situated at

(a) Hampi

(b) Srirangapattam

(c) Sravanbelgola

(d) Mysore

Solutions Set 33

1. (b)

2. (b)

3. (a)

4. (d)

5. (c)

Explanation Set 33

1. (b) Rath temples of Mahabalipuram were built in the reign of Narasinghvarman I. There are about nine monolithic temples at Mahabalipuram. They are the unique contribution of the Pallavas to Indian art. The monolithic temples are called locally as Ratha (chariot) as they resemble the processional chariots of a temple. The five Rathas, the best of all monolithic temples, are hewn out of a huge boulder.

2. (b) Rajaraja I the Chola Kings conquered Ceylon (Sinhal) first. Rajaraja began his career by the conquest of the Chera country. He defeated Chera king Bhaskara Ravivarman, whose fleet he destroyed in the port of Kandalur. He also seized Pandya Amara Bhujanga and captured the port of Vilinam. By his campaign against the Singhalees he annexed northern Ceylon, building a number of stone temples in the Ceylonese capital Polonnaruva.

3. (a) The seven Pagodas of Mahabalipuram are a witness to the art patronised by the Pallavas. Interestingly, it is documented in “Carta Cartalana”, a 14th century Spanish world map as “Setemelti” referring to “Sette Templi”, the obvious reference to the Seven Shore temples, of which only one exists today.

4. (d) The famous Kailash temple is located at Ellora. The Kailash temple is notable for its vertical excavation—carvers started at the top of the original rock, and excavated downward. The traditional methods were rigidly followed by the master the architect who could not have been achieved by excavating from the front.

5. (c) The famous idol of Gomateshwar and famous Jain temple is situated at Sravanbelgola. From Mangalore to Karkala is the Jain temple and the giant statue of lord Gomateshwara. This nude statue of Bhagban Bahubali attracts thousands of foreign visitors because of its beautiful carvings. The statue is situated on top of a rock in the centre of the town, so one needs to take up the flight of rocky steps to reach the statue.

Objective Question Set 34

1. ‘Ramayan’ the Tamil version of the great epic Ramayana was made by

(a) Kamban

(b) Avvaiyar

(c) Ilango Adigal

(d) None of these

2. Which one of the following is not a work on architecture?

(a) Manasare

(b) Samarangana Sutradhara

(c) Mahavastu

(d) Mayamata

3. Which one of the following was a land measure?

(a) Dharaka

(b) Karsha

(c) Nivartana

(d) Vimsopaka

4. Which of the following writers has mentioned the river Narmada as the dividing line between Aryavartta and Daksinapatha?

(a) Kautilya

(b) Sudraka

(c) Rajasekhara

(d) Dandin

5. Sugandhadevi who issued coins with the figure of seated Lakshmi was a Queen of

(a) Karnataka

(b) Kashmir

(c) Orissa

(d) Saurashtra

Solutions Set 34

1. (a)

2. (c)

3. (c)

4. (c)

5. (b)

Explanation Set 34

1. (a) ‘Ramayanam’ the Tamil version of the great epic Ramayana was made by Kamban. Ramavataram, popularly referred to as Kamba Ramayanam, is a Tamil epic that was written by Kamban during the 12th century. Based onValmiki’s Ramayana in Sanskrit, the story describes the life of king Rama of Ayodhya. However, Ramavataram is different from the Sanskrit original in many aspects – both in spiritual concepts and in the specifics of the storyline

2. (c) Mahavastu is not a work on architecture. Mahavastu is more refined version of Vastu Shastra. Vastu Shastra being a very old subject didn’t have a proper procedure to apply the beneficial wisdom in modern lifestyle. Due to lack of proper research and documentation of results, it has never been possible to give it a scientific working procedure.

3. (c) Nivartana was a land measure containing 400 square poles of ten cubits each, according to the Lilavati.

4. (c) Rajashekhara has mentioned the river Narmada as the dividing line between Aryavarta and Dakshinapatha. Sanskrit literature names as the dividing-line between Aryavarta or the Uttarapatha and the Dakshinapatha, i.e. between northern and southern India, sometimes the Vindhya mountains, sometimes the river Nerbudda (Narmada, Narbada) which, flowing close along the south of the Vindhya range empties itself into the gulf of Cambay near Broach, in Gujarat.

5. (b) Sugandhadevi who issued coins with the figure of seated Lakshmi was a queen of Kashmir. The auspicious markings on Srimati Radharani’s lotus feet include the signs of the conch shell, moon, elephant, barleycorn, rod for controlling elephants, chariot flag, small drum, svastika and fish.

Objective Question Set 35

1. Who among the following believed in the theory of Bheda-bhed?

(a) Vallabhacharya

(b) Nimbarakacharya

(c) Madhvacharya

(d) Ramanujacharya

2. Which one of the following is the smallest measure?

(a) Adhaka

(b) Kumbha

(c) Khari

(d) Drona

3. Astanga Samgraha is a text on

(a) Astronomy

(b) Philosophy

(c) Polity

(d) Medicine

4. Which of the following places was known as Mahodaya?

(a) Allahabad

(b) Kannauj

(c) Ujjain

(d) Pataliputra

5. Which of the following Orissan temples has a Sikhar of Dravidian style?

(a) Jagannath

(b) Lingaraj

(c) Rajarani

 (d) Vaital Devl

Solutions Set 35

1. (b)

2. (a)

3. (d)

4. (b)

5. (d)

Explanation Set 35

1. (b) Nimbarakacharya believed in the theory of Bheda-abheda. Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu amalgamated the views of all the previous Acaryas in his thesis of Acintya-bhedabheda Tattva explicitly explained by Sri Baladeva Vidyabhusana in his Govinda Bhasya of the Vedanta-sutra.

2. (a) Adhaka is the smallest measure. Equal attention is given to the measurement of time, based on the device named the Nalika, being the time taken for one Adhaka of water to flow out of a pot through a hole of the same diameter as that of a wire 4 angular long, made from 4 masas of gold.

3. (d) Astangasangraha is a text on medicine. This book ‘Astanga Sangraha’ of Acarya Vagbhata is an ancient authoritative text on Ayurveda studies many centuries by students, scholars and practitioners of Indian medicine. Because of its archaic style of composition and terse language certain amount of difficulty is being experienced.

4. (b) Kanauj was known as Mahodaya. Kannuaj remained a focal point for the three powerful dynasties, namely the Gurjara Pratiharas, Palas and Rashtrakutas, between the 8th and 10th centuries. The conflict between the three dynasties has been referred to as the Tripartite struggle by many historians.

5. (d) Vaital Deul, the Odishan temples, has a Shikhar of Dravidian style. Vaital Deul temple is an eight century temple situated near Bindu Sarovar where the main deity is Chamunda, the Tantric form of goddess Durga.

Objective Question Set 36

1. Which of the following temples was a well known centre of higher education?
(a) Dasavatar Temple at Devogarh
(b) Sasbahu Temple at Gwalior
(c) Shore Temple at Mamallapuram
(d) Trayipurusha Temple at Salotgi

Solutions Set 36

1. (d)

Explanation Set 36

1. (d) Trayipurusha temple at Salotgi was a well known centre of higher education. Shri Narayan, minister to the Rastrakulta king of South India, constructed a temple in Salotgi ( Bijapur ) which in the twelfth century became a centre for Vedic education. Many buildings were built there for students to stay in. A description of this says that five hundred acres of land were donated ( Epigraphia India ) for classrooms, lodging and boarding.

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