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History paper 2 2014/3

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updated on April 24th, 2019

Q3.     (a) “Politics remained for the bulk of the Moderates very much a part-time affair. The Congress was not a political party, but an annual three-day show…” Elucidate. (20)

(b) “The Anti-Partition Agitation (1909) had an economic character in Bengal unlike the Extremist Agitation in Maharashtra which had a  religious character.” Examine. (20)

(c) “Sardar Patel accomplished a silent revolution by ensuring the absorption and assimilation of a multitude of principalities without shedding even a drop of blood.” Elucidate. (10)

Solutions and hints 

(a) “Politics remained for the bulk of the Moderates very much a part-time affair. The Congress was not a political party, but an annual three-day show…” Elucidate. (20)

  • Elucidate means u just need to expand and explain 
  • Since the early  Congress was a body of educated lawyers and other reputed people.
  • Its leaders had complete faith in the British Government and in its sense of justice.
  • They believed that if they would place their grievances before the government reasonably, the British would certainly try to rectify them.
  • The early aims of this organization were limited only to communicate with British the government on behalf of the Indian people and voice their grievances. which the Britsh Government did not care about. 
  • Congress placed its demands before the government always in the form of petitions and worked within the framework of the law.
  • It was for this reason that the early Congress leaders were referred to as ‘Moderates’.
  • During its first twenty years, Congress made moderate demands.
  • The members placed their demands before the Government always in the form of petitions and worked within the framework of the law.
  •  They asked for: (a) representative legislatures, (b) Indianization of services, (c) reduction of military expenditure, (d) education, employment and holding of the ICS (Indian Civil Services) examination in India, (e) decrease in the burden of the cultivators, (f) defense of civil rights, (g) separation of the judiciary from the executive, (h) change in the tenancy laws, (i) reduction in land revenue and salt duty, (j) policies to help in the growth of Indian industries and handicrafts, (k) introduction of welfare programmes for the people.
  • Unfortunately, their efforts did not bring many changes in the policies and administration of the British in India.
  • In the beginning, the Britishers had a favourable attitude towards the Congress. But, by 1887, this attitude began to change.
  • They did not fulfil the demands of the Moderates.
  • The only achievement of the Congress was the enactment of the Indian Councils Act, 1892 that enlarged the legislature by adding a few nonofficial members and passing of a resolution for holding Indian Civil Services Examination simultaneously in London and in India.

For more read

Indian National Congress (1885)

 

(b) “The Anti-Partition Agitation (1909) had an economic character in Bengal unlike the Extremist Agitation in Maharashtra which had a  religious character.” Examine. (20)

(c) “Sardar Patel accomplished a silent revolution by ensuring the absorption and assimilation of a multitude of principalities without shedding even a drop of blood.” Elucidate. (10)

  • Sardar Patel, who took charge of the States Department in July 1947, tackled the situation with great statesmanship, ably assisted by VP Menon.
  • . Patel appealed to the patriotic and nationalist sentiments of the Princes and asked them to join the Indian Constituent Assembly. It was a complicated issue. In what is today ‘s Orissa, for instance, there were 26 small states.
  • He asked the states 565 in all to hand over authority only in three areas—(l) External Affairs, (h) Defence and (in) Communications to the Indian Dominion, pointing out that during the British rule, they had exercised little authority in these three subjects.
  • There were to be no changes in internal political structures. Mountbatten also urged the Princes to accept the Congress’ generous offer of accession, as it was likely that after August 15. they would be facing rebellious subjects.
  • The accession of the princely states of Junagarh. Hyderabad, Kashmir, and Manipur proved more difficult than the rest. 
  • The Maharaja of Manipur, Budhachandra Singh signed the instrument of Accession on the assurances that internal autonomy of Manipur would be maintained. However, under the pressure of public opinion, the Maharaja held elections in June 1948. (thus becoming the first part of India to hold an election on the universal adult franchise), and the state became a constitutional monarchy. Later in September 1949, Maharaja was pressurized by Govt, of India into signing a Merger Agreement without consulting the popularly elected Legislative Assembly of Manipur This bred anger and resentment in Manipur, which festers till now.
  • The Nawab of Junagarh. a small state on the coast of Kathiawar is, announced accession to Pakistan even though the people of the state desired to join India In the end, Indian troops occupied the state and a plebiscite was held, which went in favour of joining India
  • The Nizam of Hyderabad made an attempt to claim an independent status but was forced to accede to India in 1948 after an internal revolt broke out in its Telangana area and the Indian troops marched into Hyderabad
  • The Maharaja of Kashmir also delayed accession to India or Pakistan. However, he acceded to India in October 1947 after raiders from Pakistan invaded the State.

Apart from these most of Princely states were joined in Union of India

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