Posted in Geography

Rivers of India

updated on March 18th, 2019

PS :We are planning to rewrite our articles according to Amars’s Videos . That might take some time .

The drainage system refers to the system of flow of surface water mainly through rivers. An area drained by a river and its tributaries is called a drainage basin. The drainage system is related to a number of factors like slope of land, geological structure, amount and velocity of water. A river through its drainage system performs several tasks. These are excess water removal from a particular area, transportation of sediments from one place to other, providing natural source for irrigation and maintaining the water table of a region. Traditionally, rivers were useful as a source of abundant fresh water and navigation. In today’s world rivers importance has risen to include hydro power generation and setting up water-based industries. These are also important tourist attraction for activities such as boating, river rafting and cliff jumping. Because of their utility, rivers are important for life and hence regarded as lifeline. Many cities are located along the rivers and are densely populated. Delhi on the banks of Yamuna, Patna along Ganga, Guwahati along Brahmaputra, Nasik along Godavari and Cuttack along Mahanadi are some examples (fig: 9.8).

On the basis of the origin the drainage can be divided in to two parts:

(a) The Himalayan drainage system
(b) The Peninsular drainage system

Tributary: A stream or river that flows into a larger river. e.g. Yamuna

Delta: A triangular shaped land at the mouth of a river formed from the deposition of silt, sand and small rocks that flow downstream in the river. eg. Ganga delta.

Estuary: A partially enclosed coastal body of water where the salty tidal water mixes with the fresh water of the river. eg. Narmada river makes an estuary.


Pls note: *sorrow of Bihar is Kosi, sorrow of Bengal is Damodar. Amar corrected at 16.20 *Amarkantak(source of son) is in mp. *Source of Dhansiri is in Nagaland.

1. They are Perennial rivers originating from glaciers.

2. Rivers form valleys by the process of erosion.

3. The rivers are ideal for irrigation purposes as they pass through plain fertile tracts.

4. These rivers have meandering courses which shift over time.

The Himalayan Drainage System

Most of the Himalayan Rivers are perennial. This means they have water throughout the year. This is because most of these rivers originate from the glaciers and snowy peaks. They also receive water from the rainfall. The main river system in this category are:

1. The Indus River SystemJhelum, Ravi, Beas and Satluj
2. The Ganga Rivers System 

Yamuna, Ramganga, Ghaghara, Gomti,
Gandak and Kosi etc.
3. The Brahmaputra River SystemDibang, Lohit, Tista and Meghna etc.


You have already studied about Peninsular Plateau. Most of the Peninsular rivers flow eastwards and enters into Bay of Bengal. Only Narmada and Tapi rivers which flow westwards of the Western Ghats. They are good for generating hydropower because these rivers form rapids & water falls. The major peninsular rivers are Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna and Kaveri.

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Posted in Geography

The Islands

updated on March 17th, 2019

India has two main groups of Islands. There are 204 islands in the Bay of Bengal called as Andaman and Nicobar islands and 43 islands in the Arabian Sea called as Lakshadweep islands The Andaman & Nicobar island extends from north to south in the Bay of Bengal. They are bigger in size. An active volcano is located on the Barren Island in Andaman & Nicobar group of islands. Lakshadweep islands are located near Malabar coast of Kerala in the Arabian sea. They cover an area of 32 sq km. Kavaratti is the capital of Lakshadweep. These islands are formed by corals and endowed with a variety of flora and fauna. These islands are important tourist attraction underwater activities like snorkeling, such as diving, deep-sea diving, and other sports make these island more popular.

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Posted in Geography

The Peninsular Plateau

updated on March 17th, 2019

It is part of ancient land mass called Gondwana level. It covers an area of nearly 5 lakh It is spread over the states of Gujarat, Maharashtra, Bihar, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh.

River Narmada divides the peninsular plateau into two parts : The central highlands and Deccan Plateau.

(i) The central Highlands: It extends from Narmada river and the northern plains. A ravallis is the important mountain which extends from Gujrat through Rajasthan to Delhi. The highest peak of the Aravallis hills is Gurushikhar (1722m) near Mt. Abu. The Malwa Plateau and Chhota Nagpur plateau are parts of the central highlands. River Betwa, chambal and Ken are the important river of Malwa plateau while Mahadeo, Kaimur and Maikal are the important hills of chhota Nagpur plateau. The valley of Narmada is lies between the Vindhyas and the satpura which flows east to west and joins the Arabian sea.

(ii) The Deccan Plateau: The Deccan plateau is separated by a fault (A fracture in the rock along which rocks have been relatively replaced), from Chota Nagpur plateau. The black soil area in the Deccan plateau is known as Deccan trap. It is formed due to volcanic eruptions. This soil is good for cotton & sugarcane cultivation. The Deccan plateau is broadly divided into:
(a) The Western Ghats
(b) The Eastern Ghats

(a) The Western Ghats: If you look at map (Fig. No. 9.6), we will see the
Western Ghats or Sahyadris lie on the Western edge of the Deccan plateau.
It runs parallel to the western coast for about 1600 km. The average elevation of the Western Ghats is 1000 metres. The famous peaks in this area are Doda Betta, Anaimudi amd Makurti. The highest peak in this region is Anaimudi (2695m.). Western ghats are continuous and can be crossed through passes like Pal Ghat, Thal Ghot and Bhor Ghat. The rivers like Godavari, Bhima and Krishna flow eastward while the river Tapti flows westward. The streams form rapids & water falls before entering the Arabian Sea. The famous water falls are Jogfalls on Sharavati, Shiva Samudram falls on Kaveri etc.

(b) The Eastern Ghats: The Eastern Ghats are discontinuous low belt. Their average elevation is 600 m. They run parallel to the east coast from south of Mahanadi valley to the Nilgiri hills. The highest peak in this region is Mahendragiri (1501 m). The famous hills are Mahendragiri hills, Nimaigiri hills in Orissa, Nallamallai hills in Southern Andhra Pradesh, Kollimalai and Pachaimalai in Tamilnadu. The area is drained by the Mahanadi, Godawari, Krishna and Kaveri river systems. The Nilgiri hills join Western & Eastern Ghats in the south.

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