Posted in Art and Culture

Iron Age and beyond

updated on July 23rd, 2019

Iron Age and beyond

As you have learnt, human culture and civilization has undergone several phases of development. The earliest human beings started making tools with stone. Later, human beings discovered metals, which proved to be more useful for making tools. Copper, Bronze and Iron were discovered in that very chronological order.

The discovery of iron was a very important landmark in human civilization. It helped in making tools that were more lasting and durable. Later, other materials came to be used. People learned to make alloys, which are made up of two or more metals in fixed ratios. Brass is an example of an alloy. Then, we learnt how to make steel by adding Carbon to Iron. And much later, modern science gave us a very useful material called plastic. Plastic is still used for making all kinds of tools and objects of everyday use. It has many advantages over other materials.

Iron Age began about 3000 years ago when it came to be produced on a large scale and its use became common. It was much cheaper and stronger than copper and bronze. So, the use of iron tools and implements enabled our forefathers to clear forests and to reclaim lands for the extension of cultivation. Agricultural production thus increased considerably. This brought radical changes in the social and economic life of the people.

The use of iron had a great impact on transport and communication. Iron rims and spokes were used in wheels to make them stronger. Iron nails and sheets were widely used for making boats and ships. Trade and commerce flourished. This trade brought prosperity. New weapons of war like the use of long, heavy sword, sabre/saber, iron-shield, spear and lance changed the methods of warfare.

The Iron Age was also a period of intellectual progress. The most important development was the beginning of alphabets. This replaced the old pictographic style of writing about which you have already read in the Bronze Age Civilisations of Egypt, Mesopotamia and China. The Civilisations that flourished during the Iron Age were Greece, Rome, Persia and India. They were much more advanced than the earlier civilisations.

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Vedic Culture

updated on April 3rd, 2019

Vedic culture also known as Aryan Culture . By 1800 BC the Harappan civilization began declining . At the same time Vedic Culture began to flourish and gradually spread along Ganga Yamuna Plains .

They composed many hymns in honour of the gods and goddesses they
worshipped. These were compiled in four Vedas –

  • the Rig Veda,
  • Sama Veda,
  • Yajur Veda and
  • Atharva Veda.
 The word veda means knowledge of the sacred spiritual knowledge  

The early Vedic Period is represented by the Rig Veda while the latter by all other Vedic literature including the Brahmanas, Aranyakas and Upanishads

Rig Veda contains about 250 hymns in praise of Indra who is described as a destroyer of cities and there are 200 hymns in praise of God Agni.

Do you know that Agni is looked upon as an intermediary between gods and humans?

Society and Religion

  • Aryan society was patriarchal, women were treated with dignity and honour.
  • The family was the smallest social unit; several families (kula) made a village (grama)
  • A number of villages formed a tribe or Jana .
  • Chief of Jana was known as Rajan. His chief function was to protect the tribe from external attack and maintain law and order. He was assisted by the members of two councils called sabha and Samiti.
  • The Purohita performed religious functions
  • Senani looked after military activities.
  • There was no concept of the state or kingdom at this stage.
  • Although the post of Rajan had become hereditary, he could be removed from power if found weak and inefficient or cruel

Varna-Vyavastha

The Vedic society was divided into four varnas –

  • Brahamanas- teachers and Priest
  • Kshatriyas- The ruling class
  • Vaishyas – farmers, bankers, merchants , etc
  • Shudras.- artisans, craftsmen, labourers etc

This was also called the Varna-Vyavastha .

System of Chaturashrama

Division of life span into four distinct stages

  • Brahmacharya(period of celibacy, education and disciplined life in guru’s ashram),
  • grihastha (a period of family life),
  • vanaprastha (a stage of gradual detachment )
  • sannyasa (a life dedicated to spiritual pursuit away from worldly life).

However, it should be noted that these stages were not applicable to women or to the people of lower varnas

Life of Women in Vedic Culture

Women were respected by society, enjoyed freedom,
had access to education and were often free to choose their partners through swayamvara. Purdah and sati were not prevalent. (Note: they were not prevalent, does not mean they did not exist ).

Religious Spirituality in Early Vedic Culture

The ultimate aim of life was to attain moksha or salvation through the pursuit of dharma, artha and kama. Karma or performance of duty without any expectation or return was preached in the Bhagavad Gita.

  • The early Vedic people worshipped forces of nature and personified them as gods and goddesses
  • Indra, Agni, Varuna, Marut were some of their gods
  • Usha:Aditi, Prithvi were some of their goddesses.
  • Some of the solar Gods and goddesses referred to in the Rig Veda are Surya, Savitri and Pushau.
  • Yajna(sacrifice) was performed along with chanting of Vedic hymns. People poured ghee (clarified butter) and other ingredients into the fire to invoke the blessings of gods.
  • Agni or fire was looked upon as an intermediary between Gods and humans.
  • The vedic people prayed individually as well as collectively for thewelfare of the jana .

Religious Spirituality in Later Vedic Culture

  • There was a change in religious practices during the later Vedic period.
  • The prominent Gods of the early Vedic period like Indra, Agni and Varuna lost their position.
  • Trinity of Gods enjoyed the supreme position,
  • Bhramma, Vishnu and Mahesh (Shiva)
  • The religion became extremely ritualistic.
  • Sanskrit mantras, which were the monopoly of Brahmins, became an essential part of all religious functions.
  • This made the Brahmins very powerful and the Yajnas expensive.
  • Participation in them was restricted to the upper three classes.
  • The kings performed Ashvamedha, Rajasuya and Vajapeya sacrifices to establish their position
  • It is very interesting to know that some elements of the culture of the Vedic Age have survived over a period of 3,000 yrs and continues to be a part of Indian culture even today.
  • By the end of the later Vedic age, changes started occurring in society.
  • the first time people started discussing certain beliefs such as the creation of the universe, life after death and essence of life.
  • These were questions which were dealt with in great detail in the Upanishads.

Economy in Vedic Culture

  • The Aryans were primarily pastoral and agricultural people. They domesticated animals like cows, horses, sheep, goats and dogs.*****
  • They ate simple food consisting of cereals, pulses, fruits, vegetables, milk and various milk products.
  • They drank a beverage called Soma.
  • Games of chess, chariot racing etc. were their modes of entertainment.
  • In the early period, there was no money transaction or taxes.
  • Bali or voluntary donation was prevalent.
  • Cows were the measure of wealth.
  • extensive use of iron brought great changes in their life.

Technological advancements during Vedic Age

  • Iron axes enabled them to clear forests leading to the expansion of agriculture throughout the Gangetic plains.
  • Use of iron weapons and horses enabled them to fight wars and defend themselves better against enemies.
  • The increasing number of crafts, availability of surplus food and growth of population led to specialisation of skills and urbanisation.
  • Towns and cities grew and territorial states emerged.
  • High-quality earthenware called ‘Painted Grey Ware’ and ‘Northern Black Polished Ware’ has been found in many areas.****
  • Coins came into circulation.*****
  • Trade was carried on, both overland and through waterways, enhancing material prosperity

Mahajanapadas.

By sixth century BC, there were some sixteen large territorial states in North India and upper Deccan known as Mahajanapadas. Important among them were Anga, Magadha, Kosala, Kashi, Kuru, and Panchala.

Objective Question Set 1

1. Vedic literature is also known as :

(a) Shruti

(b) Smriti

(c) Sanhita

(d) Vedanga

2. Who was the founder of Vedic culture?

(a) Dravid

(b) Arya

(c) Harappan

(d) None of these

3. The word ‘Aryan’ denotes :

(a) Ethnic group

(b) Nomadic people

(c) Speech group

(d) Superior race

4. The staple food of the Vedic Aryan was :

(a) Barley and rice

(b) Rice and pulse

(c) Vegetables and fruits

(d) Milk and its products

5. Who is the most important God in Rigaveda?

(a) Agni

(b) Indra

(c) Varun

(d) Vishnu

Solutions Set 1

1. (a)

2. (b)

3. (d)

4. (d)

5. (b)

Explanation Set 1

1. (a) Vedic literature is also known as Shruti. The literature which has been handed down from time immemorial by verbal transmission.

2. (b) The Aryans were the founder of Vedic culture. The Aryans entered India through the Khyber pass, around 1500 BC. They adopted the settled agricultural lifestyle of their predecessors and established small agrarian communities across the state of Punjab. The Aryans are believed to have brought with them the horse, developed the Sanskrit language and made significant inroads into the religion and culture of that time.

4. (d) The staple diet of the people was milk, ghee (clarified butter), vegetables, fruit and barley. On special occasions like a religious feast or the arrival of a guest, a more elaborate meal was organized. Meats from the ox, goat and sheep were served along with intoxicating drinks, like Sura and Madhu.

5. (b) Indra was the most important divinity and was lord of war. 250 hymns have been devoted to only Indra in Rigveda, which is highest for any of the Gods. His other names are: Car-warrior (Rathestha); A winner ( Jitendra) and Soma Drinker (Somapa). Indra is mentioned as son of Dyaus. He killed a demon Vritra, so he is known as Vritrahan. He destroyed the forests so also known as Purandhar. He held the thunderbolt (Vajra) with which he destroyed the enemies.

Objective Question Set 2

1. Who wrote a book ‘Return of the Aryans’ ?

(a) Bhagvan Das Gidvani

(b) L.D. Kalla

(c) Avinash Chandra Das

(d) D.S. Trivedi

2. Which river has not been mentioned in Rigveda?

(a) Sindhu

(b) Saraswati

(c) Narmada

(d) Tapti

3. Which of the following is the major impact of Vedic culture on Indian history?

(a) Progress of philosophy

(b) Development of culture

(c) Rigidification of caste system

(d) Perception of a new world

4. Which of the following Vedic deities is not mentioned in the Boghazkoi inscription ?

(a) Indra

(b) Agni

(c) Mitra

(d) Varun

5. Who of the following was the God of morality during the Rigvedic times?

(a) Indra

(b) Rudra

(c) Agni

(d) Varuna

Solutions Set 2

1. (a)

2. (d)

3. (c)

4. (b)

5. (d)

Explanation Set 2

1. (a) The book ‘Return of the Aryans’ was written by Bhagvan S. Gidvani. This book tells the epic story of the Aryans – a gripping tale of kings and poets, seers and gods, battles and romance and the rise and fall of civilizations.

2. (d) The Sapta Sindhu (seven rivers) plays a prominent part in the hymns of the Rigveda. The Rigveda mentions rivers Kabul, Swat, Kurram, Gumal, Indus, Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Beas, Sutlej, etc. which proves that the settlements were in Afghanistan and Punjab as well. The river Tapti is not mentioned in Rigveda.

3. (c) The earliest expressions of caste can be found in one of India’s religious scripture known as the Vedas. In the beginning, the caste system was not rigid. But in the later Vedic period, it became rigid when the Brahmins and the Kshatriyas became powerful. So, the rigidification of caste system is the major impact of Vedic culture on India.

4. (b) The Vedic deities Agni is not mentioned in the Boghazkoi inscription. Four Vedic deities, i.e. Indra, Mitra, Varuna and Nasatya were mentioned in Boghazkoi inscription.

5. (d) Varuna, the Vedic god was the custodian of the moral and cosmic order. He was also concerned with societal affairs other than being a deification of nature.

Objective Question Set 3

1. The river Chenab was known during the Vedic period by the name :

(a) Askini

(b) Parushni

(c) Shutudri

(d) Vitasta

2. Which one of the following assemblies was also called Narishta meaning a resolution that cannot be broken?

(a) Gana

(b) Vidhata

(c) Sabha

(d) Samiti

3. Which of the following does not come under Shruti literature?

(a) Brahmana

(b) Vedanga

(c) Aranyaka

(d) Upanishad

4. The Vedic river Vitasta has been identified with :

(a) Ravi

(b) Jhelum

(c) Chenab

(d) Beas

5. Which of the following Brahmana texts belongs to Atharvaveda?

(a) Shatpatha

(b) Aitareya

(c) Gopatha

(d) Panchavinsh

Solutions Set 3

1. (a)

2. (c)

3. (b)

4. (b)

5. (c)

Explanation Set 3

1. (a) The river Chenab was known in the Vedic period as Chandrabhaga also Ashkini or Iskmati and as Acesines to the Ancient Greeks.

2. (c) The Sabha is called Narishta which meant a ‘resolution of many’ that cannot be broken. It performed the executive functions. In the later Vedic period it lost its importance due to the rise of royal power.

3. (b) Vedanga does not come under Shruti literature. It comes from post-Vedic literature. The Vedanga (limbs of the Veda) are six auxiliary disciplines traditionally associated with the study and understanding of the Vedas. They are Shiksha, Kalpa, Vyakarana, Nirukta, Chandas and Jyotisha.

4. (b) The river Jhelum is called Vitasta in the Rigveda. The Vitasta is mentioned as one of the major rivers by the holy scriptures of the Indo- Aryans — the Rigveda. It has been speculated that the Vitasta must have been one of the seven rivers (Sapta Sindhu) mentioned so many times in the Rigveda.

5. (c) The Gopatha Brahmana is the only Brahmana, a genre of the prose texts describing the Vedic rituals, associated with the Atharvaveda.

Objective Question Set 4

1. Who of the following led the confederacy of ten kings against Sudasa?

(a) Vishwamitra

(b) Bharadwaja

(c) Vashistha

 (d) Atri

2. Dasarajana was :

(a) Ten incarnations of Vishnu

(b) A sacrifice to be performed by the king

(c) Battle of ten kings

(d) None of these

3. Which part of Rigveda gives an account of the origin of the Universe?

(a) Second Mandala

(b) Fourth Mandala

(c) Ninth Mandala

(d) Tenth Mandala

4. The famous ‘Battle of Kings’ between Bharat and the host of ten kings was fought near the river :

(a) Sindhu

(b) Saraswati

(c) Parushni

(d) Vitasta

5. Which one of the following Vedic Gods depicts an association with the Sun?

(a) Ashvin

(b) Pushan

(c) Indra

(d) Brihaspati

Solutions Set 4

1. (a)

2. (c)

3. (d)

4. (c)

5. (a)

Explanation Set 4

1. (a) Battle of ten kings is the story of the campaign and the decisive battle connected with sages Vishwamitra and Vashistha. Vishwamitra organized a confederacy against Sudas of all those who had enmity with Sudas.

2. (c) Dasarajana was the battle of ten kings. The name of confederate kings involved in this war is actually slightly over ten, but was referred to roughly as ‘dasha’ in the Rigveda. They were Puru, Yadu, Turvasa, Anu, Druhyu, Alina, Paktha, Bhalanas, Shiva, Vishanin, Simyu, Vaikrna and others.

3. (d) In the tenth book (Tenth Mandala) of Rigveda, 129th hymn (Suktam) deals with the origin of the universe and creation.

4. (c) The famous Battle of ten kings between Bharat and the host often kings was fought near the river of Parushi. In the most important tribal war, the king of Bharata, Sudas was victorious.

Objective Question Set 5

1. Which of the following is concerned with origin of Indian medicine?

(a) Rigveda

(b) Samveda

(c) Yajurveda

(d) Atharveda

2. Which one of the following is described in Upanishad?

(a) Dharma

(b) Yoga

(c) Philosophy

(d) Law

3. Which of the following Purusarthas is not a part of Trivarga?

(a) Artha

(b) Dharma

(c) Moksha

(d) Kama

4. Who of the following has opened that the original homeland of the Aryan was Arctic region?

(a) Bal Gangadhar Tilak

(b) Max Muller

(c) Dayanand Saraswati

(d) A.C. Das

5. In Rigveda, maximum number of shlokas are written in the memory of :

(a) Indra

(b) Brahma

(c) Vishnu

(d) Shiva

Solutions Set 5

1. (d)

2. (c)

3. (c)

4. (a)

5. (a)

Explanation Set 5

1. (d) Atharvaveda concerned with the origin of Indian medicine. It also consists mainly of magical spells and charms.

2. (c) The Upanishads form the core of Indian philosophy. They give us both spiritual vision and philosophical argument and it is by a strictly personal effort that one can reach the truth.

3. (c) Artha, Dharma and Kama are a part of Trivarga. But Moksh is not a part of Trivarga, it is a part of Chaturvarga.

4. (a) The Arctic Home in the Vedas is a book written at the end of 1898 on the origin of Aryans by Lokmanya Bal Gangadhar Tilak. It propounded the theory that the North Pole was the original home of Aryans during pre-glacial period which they had to leave due to the ice deluge around 8000 BC and had to migrate to the Northern parts of Europe and Asia. In support to his theory, Tilak has presented certain Vedic hymns, and Vedic calendars with interpretations of the contents in detail.

5. (a) Maximum number of Shlokas in Rigveda are written in the memory of Indra. Indra was the most popular God in Vedic period.

Objective Question Set 6

1. How many times does the word ‘Jana’ occur in the Rigveda?

(a) 75 times

(b) 175 times

(c) 275 times

(d) 375 times

2. Which of the following assemblies was normally involved in the election of king?

(a) Sabha

(b) Samiti

(c) Gana

(d) Vidatha

3. The expounder of Yoga philosophy was :

(a) Patanjali

(b) Shankaracharya

(c) Jaimini

(d) Gautam

4. The word Gotra occurs for the first time in :

(a) Rigveda

(b) Samveda

(c) Yajurveda

(d) Atharveda

5. The word Visamatta was used in the latter Vedic Age for :

(a) The king

(b) The priest

(c) The trader

(d) The tax collector

Solutions Set 6

1. (c)

2. (b)

3. (a)

4. (a)

5. (a)

Explanation Set 6

1. (c) The term ‘Jana’ occurs 275 times in the Rigveda. But Janapada is not mentioned. The term Rajya occurs only once.

2. (b) Sabha and Samiti were the two popular assemblies existed in Vedic period. The most important work of the Samiti was to elect the king.

3. (a) The ancient Sage Patanjali was an expounder of the Yoga Sutras one of the most important text of yoga covering all aspects of life. Patanjali’s Yoga Sutras describe the working of the mind and emotions.

4. (a) The Gotra classification came into existence probably during the Rigvedic period. The concept of Gotra was first attempted among Brahmins to classify themselves among different groups. In present days, marriage is not allowed within the same Gotra in order to avoid impure matrimony. This thinking is in tune with the modern day genetic paradigms of hybrid vigour.

5. (a) The word Visamatta was used in the later Vedic age for the king. In the Shatapatha Brahmana, the king is described as the voucher of the people.

Objective Question Set 7

1. In the Vedic Period, which animal was known as ‘Aghanya’?

(a) Bull

(b) Sheep

(c) Cow

(d) Elephant

2. Which of the following Samhitas of Yajurveda contains only hymns and no prose?

(a) Katha

(b) Maitrayaviya

(c) Taittriya

(d) Vajasaneyi

3. The game of ‘dice’ was part of the ritual of :

(a) Agnistoma

(b) Aswamegha

(c) Rajasuya

(d) Vajapeya

4. The rivers Ganga and Yamuna are mentioned for the first time in :

(a) Rigveda

(b) Atharvaveda

(c) Satapath Brahmana

(d) Chhandogya Upanishad

5. The Gayatri Mantra is dedicated to :

(a) Indra

(b) Aditi

(c) Gayatri

(d) Savitri

Solutions Set 7

1. (c)

2. (d)

3. (c)

4. (a)

5. (d)

Explanation Set 7

1. (c) The word Aghanya is referred to as the cow in many mantras of Vedas. The meaning of this word means, “not to be killed under any circumstances”.

2. (d) The Samhita of Yajurveda that contains only hymns and no prose is Vayasaneyi.

3. (c) Dicing seems to have a special significance when connected with myths and rituals. Dicing involves uncertainty, chance, the vagaries of fortune. The dice game is representative of the challenges that a king must endure during his reign. The game of dice is a part of the rituals of Rajasuya Yagya.

4. (a) The rivers Ganga and Yamuna are first time mentioned in the Rigveda. Vedic literature hymn that starts with the rivers as Ganga, Yamuna, Saraswati and then other rivers to the West.

5. (d) The Gayatri Mantra is a highly revered mantra, based on a Vedic Sanskrit verse from a hymn of the Rigveda. The Gayatri mantra is dedicated to Savitr, is hence called Savitri. It is considered to be among the holiest mantras of Hinduism.

Objective Question Set 8

1. Who among the following was a Brahmavadini that composed some hymns of the Vedas?

(a) Lopamudra

(b) Gargi

(c) Leelavati

(d) Savitri

2. The river most mentioned in Rigveda is :

(a) Sindhu

(b) Sutudri

(c) Saraswati

(d) Gandaki

3. The famous dialogue between Nachiketa and Yama is mentioned in the :

(a) Chhandogyopanishad

(b) Mundakopnishad

(c) Kathopanishad

(d) Kenopanishad

4. The flood Legend in which a divine fish has been described as rescuing Manu occurs in detail in :

(a) Rigveda samhita

(b) Vajasaneyi samhita

(c) Satapatha Brahmana

(d) Aitareya Brahmana

5. Which of the following is the Samhita of the Shukla Yajurveda?

(a) Kathaka Samhita

(b) Maitrayaniya Samhita

(c) Taittiriya Samhita

(d) Vajasaneyi Samhita

Solutions Set 8

1. (a)

2. (a)

3. (c)

4. (c)

5. (d)

Explanation Set 8

1. (a) Lopamudra was a Brahmavadini who composed some hymns of the Vedas. Many hymns of Rigveda were composed by women and they were called Brahmavadini. The prominents in them were Lopamudra, Vishwawara, Sikta, Nivavari, Ghosa, etc.

2. (a) Rigvedic hymns mention several rivers. In the text Sindhu (or Indus), Saraswati (now lost), the Gomati (modern Gomal), the Krumu (modern Kurram) and the Kubha (modern Kabul) are mentioned. The most important river seems to be the Sindhu and its tributaries–Shutudri (Sutluj), Vipas (Beas), Parushni (Ravi), Asikni (Chenab) and Vitasta (Jhelum).

3. (c) The famous dialogue between Nachiketa and Yama about transmigration of soul is mentioned in the Kathopanishad.

4. (c) Hindu flood myth from the Satapatha Brahmana, the Matsya Avatar saves the pious and the first man, Manu, and advises him to build a giant boat.

5. (d) Yajurveda has two main branches called Shukla Yajurveda and Krishna Yajurveda. Shukla Yajurveda is also called as “Vajasameyi Samhita” and it was brought to this world by Sage Yaajnavalkya after learning from the God Sun.

Objective Question Set 9

1. Who was the priest of the Bharatas in the battle of ten kings?

(a) Visvamitra

(b) Vasishtha

(c) Atri (d) Bhrigu

2. To which Sakha does the published Rigveda Samhita belong?

(a) Sawnaka

(b) Asvalayan

(c) Sakala

(d) Sankhayana

3. Satpatha Brahmana is related to :

(a) Rigveda

(b) Yajurveda

(c) Samaveda

(d) Atharvaveda

4. King Asvapati of the Upanishadic Age was the ruler of :

(a) Kekaya

(b) Matsya

(c) Panchala

(d) Sursena

5. Which of the following Upnishads is written in prose?

(a) Isa

(b) Katha

(c) Brihadaranyaka

(d) Svetasvatara

Solutions Set 9

1. (b)

2. (c)

3. (a)

4. (b)

5. (c)

Explanation Set 9

1. (a) Indra was the Vedic deities bears resemblance with Avestan god Ahurmazda. In Zoroastrianism as reflected in the Avesta, Ahura Mazda is identified with the beneficent spirit and directly opposed to the destructive one. He is all-wise, liberal, undeceiving and the creator of everything good.

2. (d) Medhatithi was first Sanskrit scholar who did commentary on Manusmriti a Dhramashastra. The exact date of Medhatithi’s writing is unclear, and he has been placed anywhere between about 820 and 1050 AD.

4. (c) Soma was one of the more important gods in the Rigveda. The ninth Mandala of the Rigveda, also called the Soma Mandala, has 114 hymns, entirely devoted to Soma Pavamana, ‘Purifying Soma’, the sacred potion of the Vedic religion.

5. (c) Yadu tribe is one of the Indo-Aryan tribes mentioned in the Rigveda. They are mostly paired with Turvasu in Rigveda.

Objective Question Set 10

1. Who among the following Vedic deities bears resemblance with Avestan God ‘Ahurmazda’ ?

(a) Indra

(b) Varuna

(c) Rudra

(d) Vishnu

2. Who among the following was a commentator of the Manusmriti ?

(a) Asahaya

(b) Visvarupa

(c) Bhattasvami

(d) Medhatithi

3. Which of the following is also called Adharvayuveda ?

(a) Rigveda

(b) Yajurveda

(c) Samveda

(d) Atharveda

4. Which of the following Mandalas is completely devoted to the Vedic God Soma ?

(a) 1

(b) 5

(c) 9

(d) 10

5. With whom is the Yadu tribe mostly paired in the Rigveda?

(a) Anu

(b) Druhyu

(c) Turvasu

(d) Puru

Solutions Set 10

1. (a)

2. (d)

3. (b)

4. (c)

5. (c)

Explanation Set 10

1. (d) The first reference to Krishna occurs in the Chhandogya Upanishad of perhaps the sixth century B.C.

2. (d) The Sulvasutra are sutra texts belonging to the Srauta ritual and deal with complex fire altars of various shapes constructed with bricks of specific shapes and area. This proves that despite no existence of algebra, there was an awareness of precise purely geometrical calculations.

3. (a) The first hymn of each Mandala has addressed to Agni and his name is the first word of the Rigveda. The remaining hymns are mainly addressed to Indra, Varuna, Mitra, the Ashvins, the Maruts, Usas, Surya, Rbhus, Rudra, Vayu, Brhaspati, Visnu, Heaven and Earth, and all the Gods.

4. (c) “Rigvedic Aryans and the Harappans might have been same people”. The theory was given by B.B. Lal.

5. (a) Rigveda mentions artisans as the carpenter, the chariot-maker, the weaver, the leather worker, the potter, etc. This indicates that they practised all these crafts. Carpenter was the most celebrated craftsman in the Vedic age.

Objective Question Set 11

1. The earliest reference to Devakiputra Krishna occurs in :

(a) Rigveda

(b) Atharvaveda

(c) Satapatha Brahmana

(d) Chhandogya Upnishad

2. Which one of the following primarily deals with the construction of sacrificial altars?

(a) Brahmasutra

(b) Dharmasutra

(c) Grihyasutra

(d) Sulvasutra

3. In the Rigveda, the first hymn of a Mandala is often addressed to :

(a) Agni

(b) Indra

(c) Mitra

(d) None of these

4. Who is the propounder of the theory that the Rigvedic Aryans and the Harappans might have been the same people?

(a) R.S. Sharma

(b) Romila Thapar

(c) B.B. Lal

(d) H.D. Sankalia

5. Who was the most celebrated craftsman in the Vedic Age?

(a) Carpenter

(b) Coppersmith

(c) Goldsmith

(d) Weaver

Solutions Set 11

1. (d)

2. (d)

3. (a)

4. (c)

5. (a)

Explanation Set 11

1. (d) The first reference to Krishna occurs in the Chhandogya Upanishad of perhaps the sixth century B.C.

2. (d) The Sulvasutra are sutra texts belonging to the Srauta ritual and deal with complex fire altars of various shapes constructed with bricks of specific shapes and area. This proves that despite no existence of algebra, there was an awareness of precise purely geometrical calculations.

3. (a) The first hymn of each Mandala has addressed to Agni and his name is the first word of the Rigveda. The remaining hymns are mainly addressed to Indra, Varuna, Mitra, the Ashvins, the Maruts, Usas, Surya, Rbhus, Rudra, Vayu, Brhaspati, Visnu, Heaven and Earth, and all the Gods.

4. (c) “Rigvedic Aryans and the Harappans might have been same people”. The theory was given by B.B. Lal.

5. (a) Rigveda mentions artisans as the carpenter, the chariot-maker, the weaver, the leather worker, the potter, etc. This indicates that they practised all these crafts. Carpenter was the most celebrated craftsman in the Vedic age.

Objective Question Set 12

1. A story of Sunahsesha, in which his father Ajigarta is stated to have sold him to Harishchandra, occurs in :

(a) Aitareya Brahmana

(b) Gopatha Brahmana

(c) Svetasvatara Upnishad

(d) Brihadaranyaka Upnishad

2. Which of the following Upnisads includes Itihasa-Purana in the list of subjects to be taught to disciples?

(a) Mundaka Upnishad

(b) Chhandogya Upnishad

(c) Prasna Upnishad

(d) Katha Upnishad

3. Which of the following Mandalas of Rigveda is described the battle of ten kings?

(a) Second Mandala

(b) Fifth Mandala

(c) Seventh Mandala

(d) Ninth Mandala

4. Who among the following wrote Sanskrit grammar?

(a) Panini

(b) Manu

(c) Kalidasa

(d) Charak

5. Who wrote the first textbook on Jyotis?

(a) Panini

(b) Patanjali

(c) Katyayan

(d) Bhrigu

Solutions Set 12

1. (a)

2. (b)

3. (c)

4. (a)

5. (d)

Explanation Set 12

1. (a) The story of Sunahsesha in which his father Ajigarta is stated to have sold him to Harishchandra, occurs in Aitareya Brahmana.

2. (b) Chhandogya Upanishad belongs Puranas, together with Itihas, had acquired the high status of a fifth or Panchama Veda.

3. (c) Battle of the Ten Kings is a battle alluded to in Mandala 7 of the Rigveda. It is a battle between Aryans allied with other tribes of the north-west India and guided by the royal sage Vishvamitra, oppose the Trtsu (Bharata) king Sudas in battle, but are defeated.

4. (a) Panini was a Sanskrit grammarian who gave a comprehensive and scientific theory of phonetics, phonology and morphology of Sanskrit language.

5. (d) Maharishi Bhrigu was the first compiler of predictive astrology, Jyotisha. He is credited as the father of Hindu astrology and the first astrological treatise Bhrigu Samhita is attributed to his authorship. The Bhrigu Samhita is an astrological (Jyotish) classic attributed to Maharishi Bhrigu during the Vedic period.

Objective Question Set 13

1. Ashtadhyayi was written by :

(a) Panini

(b) Katyayan

(c) Vedvyas

(d) Shukadeva

2. The words “Satyameva Jayate” in the state emblem of India have been adopted from which one of the following?

(a) Mundaka Upnishad

(b) Katha Upnishad

(c) Mandukya Upnishad

(d) Chhandogya Upnishad

3. The great law given of ancient time was :

(a) Vatsyayana

(b) Ashoka

(c) Manu

(d) Panini

4. Which of the following Upnishad is the earliest?

(a) Chhandogya Upanishad

(b) Mundakopnishad

(c) Brihdaranyak Upanishad

(d) Taitariya Upanishad

5. The largest number of Rigvedic hymns are devoted to :

(a) Agni

(b) Indra

(c) Rudra

(d) Vishnu

Solutions Set 13

1. (a)

2. (a)

3. (c)

4. (a)

5. (b)

Explanation Set 13

1. (a) Ashtadhyayi is a Sanskrit treatise on grammar written in the 6th to 5th century BC by the Indian grammarian Panini. This is one of the earliest known grammars of Sanskrit language.

2. (a) ‘Satyameva Jayate’ is a mantra from the ancient Indian scripture Mundaka Upanishad. Upon independence of India, it was adopted as the national motto of India.

3. (c) Manu-smriti (Laws of Manu), traditionally, the most authoritative of the books of the Hindu code (Dharmashastra) in India. It is attributed to the legendary first man and lawgiver, Manu. In its present form, it dates from the 1st century BCE.

4. (b) The Rigvedic hymns are dedicated to various deities, chief of whom are Indra, a heroic god praised for having slain his enemy Vrtra; Agni, the sacrificial fire; and Soma, the sacred potion or the plant it is made from.

Objective Question Set 14

1. During the Rigvedic period, ‘Niska’ was an ornament of :

(a) Ear

(b) Neck

(c) Arm

(d) Wrist

2. Which of the following were regarded as the hub of Aryan culture during the later Vedic period?

(a) Anga and Magadh

(b) Kosal and Videha

(c) Kuru and Panchal

(d) Matsya and Surasena

3. Which of the following inscriptions tells about the Aryan’s movement from Iran to India?

(a) Mansehra

(b) Shahbajgarhi

(c) Boghazkoi

(d) Junagarh

4. Name the tribe which does not belong to the Panchajana of Rigvedic Aryans?

(a) Yadu

(b) Puru

(c) Turvasa

(d) Kikat

5. In which of the Vedas, Sabha and Samiti are called as two daughters of Prajapati?

(a) Rigveda

(b) Samveda

(c) Yajurveda

 (d) Atharvaveda

Solutions Set 14

1. (b)

2. (c)

3. (c)

4. (d)

5. (d)

Explanation Set 14

1. (b) In Rigvedic period, Niska was a gold necklace in the beginning but later it was also used as a coin for giving as a reward to a poet.

2. (c) The Aryans further moved towards east in the later Vedic period. The Satapatha Brahmana refers to the expansion of Aryans to the eastern Gangetic plains. Several tribal groups and kingdoms are mentioned in the later Vedic literature. One important development during this period is the growth of large kingdoms Kuru and Panchala kingdoms and they were regarded as the hub of Aryan culture.

3. (c) One of the Boghazkoi inscriptions proves that the Aryans are from Central Asia and their movements from Iran to India.

4. (d) Panchjanya is the common name given to five most ancient vedic tribes. It is supposed that they are all descendants of the Five Folks and are known by that name, e.g. Yadav for descendants of Yadu, Paurav for descendants of Puru and so on. Kikat tribe does not belong to the Panchajahya of Rigvedic aryans.

5. (d) During the Vedic period Sabha was a body of village elders and Samiti was a general assembly in which all the members of the community participated. Sabha and Samiti are depicted as the two daughters of Prajapati mentioned in Atharvaveda.

Objective Question Set 15

1. The largest number of the Mantras in Rigveda belong to :

(a) Agni

(b) Varuna

(c) Vishnu

(d) Rudra

2. Which of the following Upanishad is the smallest?

(a) Mundaka

(b) Mandukya

(c) Katha

(d) Taitariya

73. Which of the following Puranaa is the earliest?

(a) Matsya

(b) Vishnu

(c) Bhagvat

(d) Markandey

74. The economy of Rigvedic time was :

(a) Urban

(b) Rural

(c) Mixed

(d) None of these

5. Who among the following is regarded as War God in Rigveda?

(a) Agni

(b) Indra

(c) Surya

(d) Varuna

Solutions Set 15

1. (a)

2. (b)

3. (a)

4. (b)

5. (b)

Explanation Set 15

2. (b) Mandukya Upanishad is the smallest among the ten principal Upanishads. Though being smallest in size, it is highest in philosophy and deals with the subject of Pure Consciousness directly.

3. (a) Matsya Purana is one of the oldest of the 18 post-Vedic Hindu scriptures called the Puranas. It narrates the story of Matsya, the first of ten major Avatars of the Hindu god Vishnu.

Objective Question Set 16

1. Sayana the famous commentator of the Vedic texts, was patronised by :

(a) Parmara rulers

(b) Satvahana rulers

(c) Vijaynagar rulers

(d) Vakataka rulers

2. Which of the following rivers is referred to as Matetama, Devitama and Naditama in the Rigveda?

(a) Sindhu

(b) Saraswati

(c) Ganga

(d) Yamuna

3. The word Yava mentioned in Rigveda is used for which agricultural product?

(a) Barley

(b) Gram

(c) Rice

(d) Wheat

4. Buddha means :

(a) The enlightened one

(b) The religious preacher

(c) The genius

(d) The powerful

5. Gautam Buddha attained Mahaparinirvana at

(a) Kapilvastu

(b) Kushinagar

(c) Bodhgaya

(d) Rajgriha

Solutions Set 16

1. (c)

2. (b)

3. (a)

4. (a)

5. (b)

Explanation Set 16

2. (b) The river Sarswati is referred to as Matetama, Devitama and Naditama in Rigveda. The Saraswati is praised lavishly in the Rigveda as the best of all the rivers, especially in the Nadistuti Sukta.

3. (a) It is accepted that the word ‘yava’ in the oldest texts, including the Rigveda, applied to any type of grain that was grounded into flour. Yet, many Indologists treat the word as meaning specifically barley.

Religious Movement

4. (a) The word Buddha actually means enlightened one and is the name given to Gautama Siddhartha after his enlightenment under the Bodhi tree.

5. (b) Kushinagar is an important Buddhist pilgrimage site, where Gautama Buddha attained Parinirvana after his death.

Objective Question Set 17

1. The second Buddhist council was held during the region of

(a) Ajatashatru

(b) Kanishka

(c) Kalashoka

(d) Ashoka

2. Who is supposed to be the future Buddha in Mahayana Buddhism?

(a) Krakuchanda

(b) Amitabha

(c) Maitreya

(d) Kanak Muni

3. Where did the Mahasamghika school arise ?

(a) Bodhagaya

(b) Rajagriha

(c) Sravasti

(d) Vaishali

4. Which of the following is not a text of Buddhism?

(a) Jatakas

(b) Acharanga Sutra

(c) Digh Nikaya

(d) Sumangalavilasini

5. Where was the order of nuns established by Gautama Buddha ?

(a) Kapilvastu

(b) Vaishali

(c) Rajgriha

(d) Sravasti

Solutions Set 17

1. (c)

2. (c)

3. (d)

4. (b)

5. (b)

Explanation Set 17

1. (c) The Second Buddhist council took place approximately one hundred years after the Buddha’s parinirvana. King Kalashoka was the Second Council’s patron and the meeting took place at Vaishali.

2. (c) Mahayana Buddhism emerged in the first century CE as a more liberal, accessible interpretation of Buddhism. Maitreya is a transcendent Bodhisattva named as the universal Buddha of a future time in Mahayana Buddhism.

3. (d) Mahasanghika is the name of an early Buddhist school in India, during the Second Buddhist council held at Vaishali. The Mahasanghika school represents the first major schism ever recorded in Buddhism.

4. (b) Acharanga Sutra is not a text of Buddhism. It is a canonical sacred text of Jainism based on Lord Mahavira’s teachings.

5. (b) The order of Buddhist monks and nuns was founded by Gautama Buddha during his lifetime over 2500 years ago. Buddha instituted a community of nuns in Vaishali at the request of his aunt Mahaprajapati.

Objective Question Set 18

1. The earliest epigraphic evidence mentioning the birth place of Sakyamuni Buddha is obtained from

(a) Sarnath

(b) Sravasti

(c) Kausambi

(d) Rummindei

2. What is Kalyan Mitra in Buddhist philosophy?

(a) Prabandhan

(b) Dharmachakra

(c) Astangika Marg

(d) Triratna

3. To whom of his following disciples did Buddha preach his last sermon?

(a) Anand

(b) Sariputra

(c) Subhadra

(d) Upali

4. Main element (features) of Buddhist philosophy is

(a) Pratitya Samutpad

(b) Jiva and Ajiva

(c) Syadvada

(d) Triratna

5. In which language, did Mahavir Swami deliver his sermons?

(a) Sanskrit

(b) Ardha-Magadhi

(c) Vaidarbhi

(d) Suraseni

Solutions Set 18

1. (d)

2. (c)

3. (c)

4. (a)

5. (b)

Explanation Set 18

1. (d) Rummindei Pillar Inscription says that The Beloved of the Gods, the king Piyadassi, when he had been consecrated twenty years, came in person find referenced the place where Buddha Sakyamuni was born. He caused a stone enclosure to be made and a stone pillar to be erected. As the Lord was born here in the village of Lumbini, he has exempted it from tax, and fixed its contribution [i.e. of grain] at one-eighth.

2. (c) Astangika Marg is Kalyan Mitra in Buddhist philosophy. Buddha’s Astangika Marga are : Right belief, Right thought, Right speech, Right action, Right living, Right effort, Right recollection and Right meditation.

3. (c) Buddha’s last ordained disciple was a very old Brahmin in the name of Subhadra who came to pay his last respects to him and asked for ordination. Immediately after ordination, Subhadra attained enlightenment and passed away.

4. (a) Pratitya Samutpad is the main element of Buddhist philosophy. It refers to one of the central concepts in the Buddhist tradition that all things arise in dependence upon multiple causes and conditions.

5. (b) Mahavir Swami delivered his first sermon in the language of the common people called Ardha Magadhi and Prakrit.

Objective Question Set 19

1. The twenty-third Jain Tirthankara was associated with

(a) Vaishali

(b) Kausambi

(c) Varanasi

(d) Sravasti

2. Which one among the following Tirthankaras was according to the Svetamber tradition, a lady?

(a) Sumatinatha

(b) Shantinatha

(c) Mallinatha

(d) Arishtanemi

3. The teaching of Parsvanatha is collectively known as

(a) Triratna

(b) Pancha Mahavrata

(c) Panchsila

(d) Chaturyama

4. The Jain Tirthankara Mahavira has been mentioned in the early Buddhist literature as

(a) Nigantha Nataputta

(b) Vardhamana

(c) Vesaliya

(d) Videhaputta

5. The first meeting of Ghosal with Mahavir Swami was held at

(a) Champa

(b) Vaishali

(c) Takshshila

(d) Nalanda

Solutions Set 19

1. (c)

2. (c)

3. (d)

4. (a)

5. (d)

Explanation Set 19

1. (c) Tirthankar Parshvanath was the son of king Ashvasena and queen Vama of Varanasi. He achieved Nirvana on the Sammet Sikhar. He lived in Varanasi around 800 BC. Parsvanatha is the 23rd Jain Tirthankar.

2. (c) Svetambaras maintain that the 19th Tirthankara, Mallinath, was a woman. They also believe that women are able to obtain Moksha.

3. (d) Parsvanatha was the twenty-third Tirthankara of Jainism. Chaturyama Dharma the ‘fourfold teaching’ of the Parshvanath. Chaturyama Dharma, abstention from violence, theft, untruth and acquisitiveness.

4. (a) In the Buddhist Pali Canon, Mahavira is referred to as Nigantha Nataputta. Nigantha Nataputta refers to. A Nirgrantha refers to Jains. A person who has attained Kevalya can be a Nirgrantha.

Objective Question Set 20

1. The Tripitaka was written in

(a) Brahmi

(b) Kharosthi

(c) Pali

(d) Sanskrit

2. Who amongst the following is known as the Light of Asia?

(a) Jesus Christ

(b) Lord Buddha

(c) Prophet Mohammad

(d) Zarathustra

3. Who was the author of Buddha Charita?

(a) Asvaghosha

(b) Nagarjuna

(c) Nagasen

(d) Vasumitra

4. Which one of the following is not included in the eight-fold path of Buddhism?

(a) Right speech

(b) Right contemplation

(c) Right desire

(d) Right conduct

5. Yapaniya was a school of

(a) Buddhism

(b) Janism

(c) Shaivism

(d) Vaisnavism

Solutions Set 20

1. (c)

2. (b)

3. (a)

4. (c)

5. (b)

Explanation Set 20

1. (c) The Tripitaka is the standard collection of scriptures in the Theravada Buddhist tradition, as preserved in the Pali language. It is the most complete extant early Buddhist canon. It was composed in North India, and preserved orally until it was committed to writing during the Fourth Buddhist Council in Sri Lanka in 29 BCE, approximately four hundred and fifty four years after the death of Gautama Buddha.

2. (b) Gautam Buddha, who was prince Siddhartha of Kapilavastu in India/Asia before his enlightenment, is called “The Light of Asia”.

3. (a) Buddha Charita (Acts of the Buddha) is an epic poem in the Sanskrit Mahakavya style on the life of Gautama Buddha by Asvaghosa, composed in the early second century CE.

4. (c) The eightfold Path in Buddhism, is an early formulation of the path to enlightenment. The idea of the Eightfold Path appears from the first sermon of the Buddha, which delivered after his enlightenment. Right desire is not included in the Eight fold path of Buddhism.

5. (b) Yapaniya was a school of Jainism. The saints of the Yapaniya school practised nudity like the Digambaras and believed in the liberation of women in conformity with the Svetambaras.

Objective Question Set 21

1. Buddha attained Mahaparinirvana in the republic of

(a) Mallas

(b) Lichhavis

(c) Shakyas

(d) Palas

2. Where was the third Buddhist council held?

(a) Vaishali

(b) Pataliputra

(c) Kashmir

(d) Rajgriha

3. Which one of the following is not a part of early Jains literature?

(a) Therigatha

(b) Acarangasutra

(c) Sutrakritanga

(d) Brihatkalpasutra

4. The concept of Anuvrata was advocated by

(a) Mahayana Buddhism

(b) Himayana Buddhism

(c) Jainism

(d) The Lokayata School

5. In the Mahayana Buddhism, the Bodhisatya Avalokitesvar was also known as

(a) Vajrapani

(b) Manjusri

(c) Padmapani

(d) Maitreya

Solutions Set 21

1. (a)

2. (b)

3. (a)

4. (c)

5. (c)

Explanation Set 21

1. (a) Lord Buddha attained Mahaparinirvana at Kushinagar, the mortal remains of Tathagat were kept in the ‘parliament house’, of the Republic of Mallas.

2. (b) According to the Theravada commentaries and chronicles, the Third Buddhist Council was convened by the Mauryan king Ashoka at Pataliputra (today’s Patna), under the leadership of the monk Moggaliputta Tissa. Its objective was to purify the Buddhist movement, particularly from opportunistic factions which had been attracted by the royal patronage.

3. (a) Therigatha is not a part of early Jains literature. The Therigatha is a Buddhist scripture, a collection of short poems supposedly recited by early members of the Buddhist Sangha in India around 600 BC.

4. (c) In Jainism, Ahinsa is the standard by which all actions are judged. For a householder observing the small vows (anuvrata), the practice of ahinsa requires that one should not kill any animal life.

5. (c) Avalokitesvara is one of the most widely revered Bodhisattvas in mainstream Mahayana Buddhism, as well as unofficially in Theravada Buddhism. In Sanskrit, Avalokitesvara is also referred to as Padmapani (Holder of the Lotus) or Lokesvara (Lord of the World).

Objective Question Set 22

1. Who among the following was not a contemporary of the other three?

(a) Bimbsara

(b) Gautama Buddha

(c) Milinda

(d) Prasenjit

2. The fourth Buddhist council was convened during the region of king

(a) Ashoka

(b) Kaniska

(c) Kalashok

(d) Ajatasatru

3. Buddha was born at

(a) Lumbini

(b) Kapilvastu

(c) Pataliputra

(d) Vaishali

4. Name the clan Buddha belonged to

(a) Gnathrika

(b) Maurya

(c) Shakya

(d) Koliya

5. Who presided over the fourth Buddhist council in Kashmir?

(a) Asvagosha

(b) Upagupta

(c) Vasumitra

(d) Mahakasyapa

Solutions Set 22

1. (c)

2. (b)

3. (a)

4. (c)

5. (c)

Explanation Set 22

1. (c) King Milinda was not a contemporary of the other three given in the option. Milinda in Indian Pali sources was a Greek of the Indo-Greek kingdom (165 BC–130 BC) who established a large empire in the South Asia and became a patron of Buddhism.

2. (b) Fourth Buddhist Council is the name of two separate Buddhist council meetings. The first one was held in the 1st century BC, in Sri Lanka. The 2nd Fourth Buddhist Council is said to have been convened by the Kushan emperor Kanishka, perhaps in 78 CE in Jalandhar or in Kashmir.

3. (a) The Lord Buddha was born in 623 BC in the sacred area of Lumbini located in the Terai plains of southern Nepal, testified by the inscription on the pillar erected by the Mauryan Emperor Asoka in 249 BC.

4. (c) Siddhartha’s caste was the Kshatriya. He belonged to the Shakya clan and was born in the royal family. His father was Suddhodana and his mother was Maya. Because of this, he was known as Shakyamuni “sage of the Shakya clan”, which is the most common name used in the Mahayana literature to refer to the Buddha.

5. (c) The Fourth Buddhist Council was presided over by Vasumitra in Kashmir during the reign of Kanishka and had to deal with a serious conflict between the Sarvasthivada teachers of Kashmir and Gandhara.

Objective Question Set 23

1. Who of the following was a contemporary of Gautama Buddha?

(a) Bhadrabahu

(b) Kalashok

(c) Parsvanath

(d) Vardhaman Mahavir

2. Buddhist, Hindu and Jain Rock-cut caves coexist at

(a) Ajanta

(b) Elephanta

(c) Ellora

(d) Karle

3. Lumbini was the birth place of Gautam Buddha is attested by an inscription of

(a) Ashoka

(b) Pushyamitra Shunga

(c) Kanishka

(d) Harsha

4. At which place, did Gautam Buddha give his first sermon ?

(a) Vaishali

(b) Vallabhi

(c) Rajgriha

(d) Sarnath

5. Sarnath is in the state of

(a) Kerala

(b) Maharashtra

(c) Gujarat

(d) Uttar Pradesh

Solutions Set 23

1. (d)

2. (c)

3. (a)

4. (d)

5. (d)

Explanation Set 23

2. (c) The Ellora caves are an impressive complex of Buddhist, Hindu and Jain cave temples carved out of the vertical face of the Charanandri hills between the 6th and 10th centuries AD near the ancient Indian village of Ellora.

4. (d) Sarnath, is the place where Gautam Buddha first gave his sermon after his enlightenment. It is one of the most sacred places for Buddhist after Bodhgaya where he got enlightenment.

5. (d) Sarnath is located 13 kilometres north-east of Varanasi, in Uttar Pradesh.

Objective Question Set 24

1. Svetambara Agama was finally edited at the Jain council of

(a) Vaishali

(b) Vallabhi

(c) Pawa

(d) Vidarbha

2. Which one of the following is considered the best Stupa?

(a) Amravati

(b) Bharhut

(c) Sanchi

(d) Bodhgaya

3. The first Buddhist council was held during the region of

(a) Aniruddha

(b) Ajatsatru

(c) Bimbisara

(d) Udayabhadra

4. The originator of the Jain religion is

(a) Rishabhdeo

(b) Arya Sudharma

(c) Mahavir Swami

(d) Parshvanath

5. The Stupa site not connected with any incident of Buddha’s life is

(a) Sarnath

(b) Sanchi

(c) Kushinagar

(d) Bodhgaya

Solutions Set 24

1. (b)

2. (c)

3. (b)

4. (a)

5. (b)

Explanation Set 24

1. (b) Vallabhi has been a famous Jain centre. It was here in 453 or 466 AD, the Vallabhi council of the Jains produced in writing the religious canon under the head of the shraman Devardhigani. Svetambara Agama was finally edited at the Jain council of Vallabhi.

2. (c) Sanchi is considered as the best Stupa. The ‘Great Stupa’ at Sanchi is the oldest stone structure in India and was originally commissioned by the emperor Ashoka the Great in the 3rd century BC.

3. (b) According to the scriptures of all Buddhist schools, the first Buddhist Council was held soon after the Mahaparinirvana of the Buddha, dated by the majority of recent scholars around 400 BCE, under the patronage of king Ajatasatru with the monk Mahakasyapa presiding, at Sattapanni caves Rajgriha. Its objective was to preserve the Buddha’s sayings and the monastic discipline or rules (Vinaya).

4. (a) Jain belief goes to accept unanimously Rishabh Dev as the founder of Jain religion. Evidences of this fact are available to the worship of Tirthankar Rishabh Dev was in vogue before 1st Century BC There is no doubt that Jain religion has been practised before Vardhman as well as before Parsvanath. Names of Rishabh Dev, Ajitnath and Aristhnemi were indicated in Yajurveda. Bhagwat Puran also confirms that Rishabh Dev was the founder of Jain religion.

5. (b) Sanchi is the oldest extant Buddhist sanctuary. Although Buddha never visited the site during any of his former lives or during his earthly existence.

Objective Question Set 25

1. Anekantavada is a core theory and philosophy of which one of the following?

(a) Buddhism

(b) Jainism

(c) Sikhism

(d) Vaishnavism

2. Milinda Panho is in the form of a dialogue between the king Menander and Buddhist Monk

(a) Nagasena

(b) Nagarjuna

(c) Nagabhatta

(d) Kumarilbhatta

3. According to Boddhist, the main aim of life is

(a) Nirvana

(b) Moksha

(c) Kaivalya

(d) Nirjara

4. Which of the following principles was added to Jainism by Mahavira?

(a) Satya

(b) Ahinsa

(c) Brahmacharya

(d) Aparigraha

5. Which of the following places is associated with Jainism?

(a) Kapilvastu

(b) Pava

(c) Sarnath

 (d) Sravasti

Solutions Set 25

1. (b)

2. (a)

3. (a)

4. (c)

5. (b)

Explanation Set 25

1. (b) Anekantavada is one of the most important and fundamental doctrines of Jainism. It refers to the notion that truth and reality are perceived differently from diverse points of view, and that no single point of view is the complete truth.

2. (a) Milinda Panha is in the form of a dialogue between the Greek King Milinda (Minander I) and the Buddhist monk Nagasena.

4. (c) Mahavira added Brahmacharya (Celibacy) to the Chaturyama system established by the twenty-third Tirthankara Parshvanath. Thus, he based it on five principles–Ahinsa, Satya, Asteya, Brahmacharya and Aparigraha.

5. (b) Pawapuri or Pava is a holy site for Jains located in Nalanda district in Bihar. Around 5th Century BCE, Mahavira, the last Tirthankara of Jainism achieved Moksha or Nirvana here.

Objective Question Set 26

1. Who is believed by the Jainas to be the first Tirthankar?

(a) Rishabhadeva

(b) Mahavira

(c) Neminath

(d) Parshvanath

2. Who was the teacher of Gautam Buddha?

(a) Gautam

(b) Alara Kalam

(c) Asanga

(d) Sudharman

3. Tripitaka texts are related with which religion?

(a) Vedic

(b) Buddhism

(c) Jainism

(d) Shaivism

4. Which of the following is not representation of Buddhist art?

(a) Stupa

(b) Vihar

(c) Chaitya

(d) Relic tower

5. Who was the founder of Mahayan sect of Buddhism?

(a) Buddhadeva

(b) Ghoshak

(c) Dharmtrat

(d) Asang

Solutions Set 26

1. (a)

2. (b)

3. (b)

4. (d)

5. (d)

Explanation Set 26

2. (b) Alara Kalama was a hermit saint and a teacher of yogic meditation who lived near Rajgriha. He was one of the teachers of Gautama Buddha. Under Alara Kalama Gautama, Buddha practised austerities. Alara taught Gautama Buddha many things including meditation.

4. (d) Relic tower is not a representation of Buddhist art. Buddhist architecture consist mainly of Chaityas, Viharas, Stupas and Stambhas.

5. (d) Asanga was born as the son of a Kshatriya father and Brahmin mother in Purusapura. Current scholars place him in the fourth century CE. He was perhaps originally a member of the Mahisasaka school or the Mulasarvastivada school but later converted to Mahayana.

Objective Question Set 27

1. Who founded the Lingayat Movement?

(a) Basava

(b) Lakulisha

(c) Matsyendranath

(d) Kulshekhar

2. Who was the founder of Pashupat Sampradaya?

(a) Kulshekhar

(b) Lakulisha

(c) Bhavbhuti

(d) Shambhunath

3. Who was the founder of Sunyavada?

(a) Asang

(b) Basubandhu

(c) Vasumitra

(d) Nagarjuna

4. Who was the founder of Vigyanvada or Yogachar?

(a) Ashvaghosh

(b) Nagasen

(c) Maitreyanath

(d) Aryadeva

5. Who was the founder of Aajivak Sampradaya?

(a) Puran Kasyapa

(b) Makkali Gosala

(c) Aryadeva

(d) Ajit Keskamblin

Solutions Set 27

1. (a)

2. (b)

3. (d)

4. (c)

5. (b)

Explanation Set 27

1. (a) The Lingayat Community was founded by Basava in the 12th century AD. The Lingayats are Virashaivites Saivite. The philosophy of the Lingayatas was influenced by the teachings of both Shankarachary and Ramanuja. This sect was characterised by an anti-Brahmanical spirit.

2. (b) According to scholars, Lakulisha is the founder of the Pashupata Shaivism sect. According to a tradition stated in the Linga Purana, Lakulisha is considered as the 28th and the last Avatar manifestation of Shiva and the propounder of Yoga system.

3. (d) Sunyavada was founded by an Indian Buddhist philosopher Nagarjuna (150 – 250 CE) and based on the Prajnaparamita Sutras, expounding the philosophy of emptiness, voidness (Sunyata), which later also influenced Ch’an in China and Zen in Japan.

4. (c) Maitreyanatha ( 270–350 CE) is one of the three founders of the Vigyanvada or Yogachar school of Buddhist philosophy, along with Asanga and Vasubandhu.

5. (b) Ajivika, an ascetic sect that emerged in India about the same time as Buddhism and Jainism and that lasted until the 14th century. It was founded by Goshala Maskariputra (also called Gosala Makkhaliputta).

Objective Question Set 28

1. Who was the founder of Lokayat sect?

(a) Brihaspati

(b) Manu

(c) Vigyaneswer

(d) Pakudh Kachayan

2. Syadvad is a doctrine of

(a) Buddhism

(b) Jainism

(c) Shaivism

(d) Vaishnavism

3. Who became the chief of Jain Sangh after the death of Mahavira?

(a) Indrabhuti

(b) Jambu

(c) Sthulbhadra

(d) Sudharma

4. Who among the following is given the credit of carrying Jainism in South India?

(a) Indrabhuti

(b) Sthulbhadra

(c) Bhadrabahu

(d) Sudharma

5. Vikramshila Mahavihar was founded by

(a) Harsha

(b) Gopal

(c) Kumarpal

(d) Dharmapal

Solutions Set 28

1. (a)

2. (b)

3. (d)

4. (c)

5. (d)

Explanation Set 28

1. (a) The terms Lokayata and Carvaka have historically been used to denote the philosophical school of Indian Materialism. Carvaka and Ajita Kesakambalin are said to have established Indian Materialism as a formal philosophical system, but some still hold that Brihaspati was its original founder. Brihaspati authored the classic work on Indian Materialism, the Brihaspati Sutra.

2. (b) Syadvad is a doctrine of Jainism. Syadvad is the philosophy of seeing an individual or an object from various points of view; trying to understand them and acquiring the right knowledge of those things.

3. (d) After the death of Mahavira, one of his disciple Sudharma Swami is said to have taken over the leadership. He was the head of Jain community till 515 BCE.

5. (d) In 8th century, King Dharampal of Pal dynasty formed the world famous Vikramshila Mahavihar in Antichak village, Kahalgaon.

Objective Question Set 29

1. Mahavir was born at

(a) Kapilvastu

(b) Lumbini

(c) Kundgram

(d) Champa

2. Who was the last Tirthankara ?

(a) Mahavir Swami

(b) Aristnemi

(c) Parshvanath

(d) None of these

3. The first Jain council was convened during the reign of

(a) Bimbisara

(b) Shisunaga

(c) Mahapadamnand

(d) Chandragupta Maurya

4. In which of the following places, Mahavir Swami gave his first sermon?

(a) Vaishali

(b) Rajgriha

(c) Nalanda

(d) Champa

5. In which Jain council, Jain dharm was divided in Svetamber and Digamber?

(a) First council

(b) Second council

(c) Third council

(d) Fourth council

Solutions Set 29

1. (c)

2. (a)

3. (d)

4. (b)

5. (a)

Explanation Set 29

1. (c) Lord Mahavira was the twenty-fourth and last Tirthankara of Jain religion. He was born in Kundagrama, i.e. Basukund of today in 599 BC.

3. (d) First Jain council was held at Pataliputra by Sthalabahu in the beginning of the third century BC during the reign of Chandragupta Maurya.

4. (b) Bhagwan Mahavir’s first sermon (called ‘Divya- Dhwani’) was delivered on ‘Vipulachala Hill’ near ‘Rajgrahi’. In his preaches, he gave emphasis on non-violence, non-attachment and on Anekant and Syadvada.

5. (a) The first Jain council (conference) of monks was held in Pataliputra about 160 years after Lord Mahavira’s nirvana. Monk Bhadrabahu, who had the knowledge of all 12 Angas, could not be present at that meeting. The rest of the monks could compile only the first eleven Angas by recollection and thus, the twelfth Anga was lost. The monks from the South did not agree with this compilation, and the first split in Jainism started. Jains divided into two main groups, Svetambaras and Digambaras. Svetambara monks wore white clothes. Digambara monks did not wore any clothes at all.

Objective Question Set 30

1. Who was the president of first Jain council?

(a) Bhadrabahu

(b) Sthalabahu

(c) Devardhigan

(d) Nagarjuna Suri

2. Who was the author of Kalpsutra?

(a) Vasumitra

(b) Hemchandra

(c) Bhadrabahu

(d) Sthulbhadra

3. Mahavir Swami breathed his last at

(a) Rajgriha

(b) Pawapuri

(c) Vaishali

(d) Champa

4. The custom Santhara is related to which of the following sects?

(a) Jain

(b) Buddha

(c) Shaiva

(d) Vaishnava

5. The first sermon of Buddha made at Saranath is called

(a) Dharmachakra Parivartan

(b) Dharma Sansthapan

(c) Dharma Sabha

(d) Maha Parinirvan

Solutions Set 30

1. (b)

2. (c)

3. (b)

4. (a)

5. (a)

Explanation Set 30

2. (c) The Kalpa Sutra is a Jain text containing the biographies of the Jain Tirthankaras. Bhadrabahu is considered the author of the text and it is traditionally said to have been composed about one hundred and fifty years after Nirvana of Mahavira.

4. (a) The custom Santhara is related to Jain sects. Santhara, a Jain spiritual practice which entails a voluntary giving up of one’s life through fasting.

5. (a) The Dharmachakra Parivartan is said to be the first teaching given by the Buddha after he attained enlightenment. It is taught that the Buddha attained enlightenment while sitting under the Bodhi tree by the river Neranjara, in Bodhgaya.

Objective Question Set 31

1. In the Bhagawat religion, the number of forms of Bhakti

(a) 10

(b) 9

(c) 4

(d) 5

2. Amaravati Stupa is situated in

(a) Uttar Pradesh

(b) Madhya Pradesh

(c) Andhra Pradesh

(d) Karnataka

3. Mother of Gautam Buddha belonged to which dynasty?

(a) Shakya dynasty

(b) Maya dynasty

(c) Lichchavi dynasty

(d) Koliyan dynasty

4. Who became the first follower of Mahavira?

(a) Jamali (b) Yashoda

(c) Aanojja (d) Trishala

5. Who installed the grand image of Gomateshwar at Shravanbelgola?

(a) Chamundaraya

(b) Krishna I

(c) Kumar Pal

(d) Tejpal

Solutions Set 31

1. (b)

2. (c)

3. (d)

4. (a)

5. (a)

Explanation Set 31

2. (c) The Amravati Stupa is a famous specimen of the Buddhist art and architecture of ancient India. It is located at Amravati in Andhra Pradesh. Amravati was the capital of the ancient Satavahana dynasty, came under the influence of the Buddhist faith through the Kushanas.

3. (d) Maya was the mother of the Buddha and was from the Koliyan clan. Maya was born in Devadaha in ancient Nepal. She was married to King Suddhodana, who ruled in the kingdom of Kapilavastu.

4. (a) Mahavira was married to Yashoda and produced a daughter whose husband, Jamali, became the first disciple of Mahavira.

5. (a) The grand image of Gomoteshwara was installed by Chavundaraya in 988 AD at Sharavanbelgola. Chamundaraya was a military commander, poet and a minister in the court of the Western Ganga Dynasty of Talakad in represent-day Karnataka.

Objective Question Set 32

1. Buddha is depicted on the coins of

(a) Wima Kadphises

(b) Kanishka

(c) Nahapana

(d) Budhgupta

Solutions Set 32

1. (b)

Explanation Set 32

1. (b) Kanishka’s coins portray images of Indian, Greek, Iranian and even Sumero-Elamite divinities, demonstrating the religious syncretism in his beliefs. The Buddhist coins of Kanishka are comparatively rare. Several coins show Kanishka on the obverse and the Buddha standing on the reverse, in Hellenistic style.

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