updated on March 17th, 2019
Our country, India, enjoys
(a) Cold weather season (December – February)
(b) Hot weather season (
(d) Post or retreating monsoon season (October – November).
You will know more about each of them in the following section.
(a) Cold Weather Season: The duration of cold weather season is from December to February. The temperature decreases from the South to the North. December and January are the coldest months and the average
(b) Hot Weather Season: By the end of February the temperature starts rising. So from March to May, it is a hot weather season. We find the high temperature in plains, the western part of India and in the central part of peninsular India. In Northern Plains, thus, an elongated low pressure which is called monsoonal trough created here, which extends from Jaisalmer in western Rajasthan to Jharkhand and parts of Odisha to the East. However, over the Indian Ocean south of the equator high-pressure belt begins to develop in this season. In northwest India, afternoon dust storms are common. During summer, very hot and dry winds blow over North Indian plains. They are locally called ‘Loo’. Exposure to theses hot winds may cause heat or sun stroke. This is also the season for localized thunderstorms, associated with violent winds, torrential downpours, often accompanied by hail. In West Bengal, these storms are known as the ‘Kaal Baisakhi’ (calamity for the month of Baisakh). Towards the close of the summer season, pre-monsoon showers are common, especially in Kerala and Karnataka. They help in the early ripening of mangoes, and are often referred to as ‘mango showers’.
(c) Advancing South West Monsoon Season: After the scorching heat of summer
per hour. These
The Arabian Sea Branch obstructed by
The monsoon winds that move from the Bay of Bengal strike Andaman and Nicobar islands North-Eastern states and coastal areas of West Bengal and covers the whole of India by the 15th of July. They cause heavy rainfall in the region. However, the quantity of rainfall decreases as they move towards West over the Northern Plains. For examples rainfall at Kolkata are 120 cm, Allahabad 91 cm, and Delhi 56cm. You must have seen that rainfall does not continue for several days. The monsoon tends to have ‘breaks’ in its rainfall which causes wet and dry spells. This means that monsoon rains occur only a few days at a time. Rainless dry spells occur in between. As the monsoon comes after the hot and dry summer season, the rainfall brings down the temperature. We can see this decline is from 5°C to 8°C between mid-June and mid-July. This is the time when many parts of India face floods also. This is mainly because of heavy rainfall and our inability to manage our water resources more systematically. On the other hand, there are many areas that experience drought conditions during this season.
Collect the information from the newspapers and other sources and find out which parts of India are regularly affected by the floods and droughts.
(d) Retreating or Post Monsoon Season: October and November are the months of the post (or retreating) monsoon season. The temperatures during September-October start decreasing in north India. Monsoonal trough also becomes weak over North-West India. This is gradually replaced by a high-pressure system. The South-West monsoon winds weaken and start withdrawing gradually from North Indian Plains by November. In October the weather remains humid and warm due to continuing high temperature and moist land in the month of October. In Northern Plains, hot and humid weather becomes oppressive at this time. It is commonly called ‘October Heat’. However, towards the end of October, the temperature starts decreasing, making nights pleasant. This is also the time of cyclonic storms which develop in the Bay of Bengal as the low pressure of North India shifts to this area. These storms create havoc in coastal areas of Odisha, Andhra Pradesh, and Tamil Nadu, especially in the deltas of Mahanadi, Godavari and Krishna rivers.
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