Posted in Geography

Seasons of India

updated on March 17th, 2019

Our country, India, enjoys variety of seasons due to geographical locations. Now you will know about the seasons of India and their unique features. We have four seasons:
(a) Cold weather season (December – February)
(b) Hot weather season (March – May)
(c) Advancing South – West monsoon season (June – September)
(d) Post or retreating monsoon season (October – November).

You will know more about each of them in the following section.

(a) Cold Weather Season: The duration of cold weather season is from December to February. The temperature decreases from the South to the North. December and January are the coldest months and the average

temperature in North is (12° to 15°C) and in South (25°C). Frost is common in the North and North-West India. There is light rainfall in this region due to Western disturbances. Higher slopes of the Himalayas experience snowfall. During the winter season, North-East trade winds prevail over India. They blow from land to sea. Hence, for most part of the country, it is a dry season. However, the Tamil Nadu coast receives winter rainfall due to these winds. A part of North-East trade winds blow over Bay of Bengal. They gather moisture which causes rainfall in the coastal Tamilnadu while the rest of the country remains dry. In the northern part of the country the weather is marked by clear sky, low temperatures and low humidity. The winter rainfall is very important for the cultivation of ‘Rabi’ crops.

(b) Hot Weather Season: By the end of February the temperature starts rising. So from March to May, it is a hot weather season. We find the high temperature in plains, the western part of India and in the central part of peninsular India. In Northern Plains, thus, an elongated low pressure which is called monsoonal trough created here, which extends from Jaisalmer in western Rajasthan to Jharkhand and parts of Odisha to the East. However, over the Indian Ocean south of the equator high-pressure belt begins to develop in this season. In northwest India, afternoon dust storms are common. During summer, very hot and dry winds blow over North Indian plains. They are locally called ‘Loo’. Exposure to theses hot winds may cause heat or sun stroke. This is also the season for localized thunderstorms, associated with violent winds, torrential downpours, often accompanied by hail. In West Bengal, these storms are known as the ‘Kaal Baisakhi’ (calamity for the month of Baisakh). Towards the close of the summer season, pre-monsoon showers are common, especially in Kerala and Karnataka. They help in the early ripening of mangoes, and are often referred to as ‘mango showers’.

(c) Advancing South West Monsoon Season: After the scorching heat of summer season people eagerly wait for the rains which can give them relief. Farmers wait for the rains so that they can prepare their fields for the next cropping season Kharif. June to September are the months of advancing South-West monsoon season. By the end of May, the monsoon trough further intensifies over north India due to high temperature in the region. The General direction of the wind during this season is from South-West to north-east. These winds are strong and blow at an average velocity of 30 km

per hour. These moisture laden winds first hit at Andaman and Nicobar Islands in the last week of May and Kerala coast in the first week of June with violent thunder and lightning. This South-West monsoon that flows in to India brings about a major change in its weather. Two branches of south-west monsoon originate from: (i) Arabian Sea and (ii) Bay of Bengal.

The Arabian Sea Branch obstructed by Western Ghats gives heavy rainfall on the Western side of Western Ghats. It reaches Mumbai by 10th June (See Fig. 10.7). When this branch crosses the Western Ghats and reaches the Deccan Plateau and parts of Madhya Pradesh, it gives less rainfall as it is a rain shadow region. Further, this branch reaches in Northern Plain by 20th June.

The monsoon winds that move from the Bay of Bengal strike Andaman and Nicobar islands North-Eastern states and coastal areas of West Bengal and covers the whole of India by the 15th of July. They cause heavy rainfall in the region. However, the quantity of rainfall decreases as they move towards West over the Northern Plains. For examples rainfall at Kolkata are 120 cm, Allahabad 91 cm, and Delhi 56cm. You must have seen that rainfall does not continue for several days. The monsoon tends to have ‘breaks’ in its rainfall which causes wet and dry spells. This means that monsoon rains occur only a few days at a time. Rainless dry spells occur in between. As the monsoon comes after the hot and dry summer season, the rainfall brings down the temperature. We can see this decline is from 5°C to 8°C between mid-June and mid-July. This is the time when many parts of India face floods also. This is mainly because of heavy rainfall and our inability to manage our water resources more systematically. On the other hand, there are many areas that experience drought conditions during this season.

Collect the information from the newspapers and other sources and find out which parts of India are regularly affected by the floods and droughts. Also paste the newspaper cuttings as a sample. Identify name the reasons and collect the information about the most recent.

(d) Retreating or Post Monsoon Season: October and November are the months of the post (or retreating) monsoon season. The temperatures during September-October start decreasing in north India. Monsoonal trough also becomes weak over North-West India. This is gradually replaced by a high-pressure system. The South-West monsoon winds weaken and start withdrawing gradually from North Indian Plains by November. In October the weather remains humid and warm due to continuing high temperature and moist land in the month of October. In Northern Plains, hot and humid weather becomes oppressive at this time. It is commonly called ‘October Heat’. However, towards the end of October, the temperature starts decreasing, making nights pleasant. This is also the time of cyclonic storms which develop in the Bay of Bengal as the low pressure of North India shifts to this area. These storms create havoc in coastal areas of Odisha, Andhra Pradesh, and Tamil Nadu, especially in the deltas of Mahanadi, Godavari and Krishna rivers.

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Posted in Geography

Factors Affecting the Climate of India

updated on March 17th, 2019

1. Location: The places which are closer to equator have high temperature. As one moves towards the poles temperature decreases. As our country, India is located in Northern hemisphere closer to equator at 8°4¢ and 23½° Tropic of Cancer passes through the central part of India. So in south of this latitude we find tropical climate and towards the north we find sub-tropical climate. For example, Andhra Pradesh would be hotter than Haryana. Broadly speaking parts lying south of the Tropic of Cancer receive more solar heat than those lying north of it.

2. Distance from the sea: The southern half of India is surrounded by sea from three sides: the Arabian Sea in the west, the Bay of Bengal in the east and the Indian Ocean in the south. Due to moderating influence of the sea this region is neither hot in summer nor very cold in winter. For example the area of North India which is far away from the sea has extreme type of climate and the area of south India which is nearer to the sea has equable type of climate. We can see the variations in temperature and rainfall at different stations in the given table 10.1.

3. Altitude: It means the height above the average sea level. The atmosphere becomes less dense and we feel breathlessness as we go higher from the earth surface and thus the temperature also decreases with the height. For example, the cities located on the hills are cooler like Shimla whereas the cities lying in the plains will have hot climate like Ludhiana.

4. Mountain Ranges: Mountain ranges also affect the climate of any region to a great extent. The Himalaya Mountain is located in the northern part of our country with an average height of 6000m. It protects our country from cold winds of Central Asia. On the other hand, they check rain bearing South-West Monsoon winds and compel them to shed their moisture in India. Similarly, Western Ghats force rain bearing winds to cause heavy rain fall on the Western slopes of the Western Ghats.

5. Direction of surface winds: The wind system also affects the Indian climate. This system consists of monsoon winds, land and sea breeze, and local winds. In winter the winds blow from land to sea so they are cold and dry. On the other hand, in summer wind blow from sea to land bringing the moisture along with them from the sea and they cause wide spread rain in most part of the country.

6. Upper air Currents: Besides surface winds, there are strong air currents called Jet streams which also influence the climate of India. These jet streams are a narrow belt of fast blowing winds located generally at the 12,000-metre height above the sea level. They bring western cyclonic disturbances along with them. These cyclonic winds originate near the Mediterranean Sea and move eastwards. On their way, they collect moisture from the Persian Gulf and shed it in the Northwestern part of India during winter seasons. These Jet streams shift northwards during the summer season and blow in Central Asia. Thus helps in the onset of monsoons.

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Posted in Geography

Rivers of India

updated on March 18th, 2019

PS :We are planning to rewrite our articles according to Amars’s Videos . That might take some time .

The drainage system refers to the system of flow of surface water mainly through rivers. An area drained by a river and its tributaries is called a drainage basin. The drainage system is related to a number of factors like slope of land, geological structure, amount and velocity of water. A river through its drainage system performs several tasks. These are excess water removal from a particular area, transportation of sediments from one place to other, providing natural source for irrigation and maintaining the water table of a region. Traditionally, rivers were useful as a source of abundant fresh water and navigation. In today’s world rivers importance has risen to include hydro power generation and setting up water-based industries. These are also important tourist attraction for activities such as boating, river rafting and cliff jumping. Because of their utility, rivers are important for life and hence regarded as lifeline. Many cities are located along the rivers and are densely populated. Delhi on the banks of Yamuna, Patna along Ganga, Guwahati along Brahmaputra, Nasik along Godavari and Cuttack along Mahanadi are some examples (fig: 9.8).

On the basis of the origin the drainage can be divided in to two parts:

(a) The Himalayan drainage system
(b) The Peninsular drainage system

Tributary: A stream or river that flows into a larger river. e.g. Yamuna

Delta: A triangular shaped land at the mouth of a river formed from the deposition of silt, sand and small rocks that flow downstream in the river. eg. Ganga delta.

Estuary: A partially enclosed coastal body of water where the salty tidal water mixes with the fresh water of the river. eg. Narmada river makes an estuary.


Pls note: *sorrow of Bihar is Kosi, sorrow of Bengal is Damodar. Amar corrected at 16.20 *Amarkantak(source of son) is in mp. *Source of Dhansiri is in Nagaland.

1. They are Perennial rivers originating from glaciers.

2. Rivers form valleys by the process of erosion.

3. The rivers are ideal for irrigation purposes as they pass through plain fertile tracts.

4. These rivers have meandering courses which shift over time.

The Himalayan Drainage System

Most of the Himalayan Rivers are perennial. This means they have water throughout the year. This is because most of these rivers originate from the glaciers and snowy peaks. They also receive water from the rainfall. The main river system in this category are:

1. The Indus River SystemJhelum, Ravi, Beas and Satluj
2. The Ganga Rivers System 

Yamuna, Ramganga, Ghaghara, Gomti,
Gandak and Kosi etc.
3. The Brahmaputra River SystemDibang, Lohit, Tista and Meghna etc.


You have already studied about Peninsular Plateau. Most of the Peninsular rivers flow eastwards and enters into Bay of Bengal. Only Narmada and Tapi rivers which flow westwards of the Western Ghats. They are good for generating hydropower because these rivers form rapids & water falls. The major peninsular rivers are Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna and Kaveri.

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Posted in Geography

The Islands

updated on March 17th, 2019

India has two main groups of Islands. There are 204 islands in the Bay of Bengal called as Andaman and Nicobar islands and 43 islands in the Arabian Sea called as Lakshadweep islands The Andaman & Nicobar island extends from north to south in the Bay of Bengal. They are bigger in size. An active volcano is located on the Barren Island in Andaman & Nicobar group of islands. Lakshadweep islands are located near Malabar coast of Kerala in the Arabian sea. They cover an area of 32 sq km. Kavaratti is the capital of Lakshadweep. These islands are formed by corals and endowed with a variety of flora and fauna. These islands are important tourist attraction underwater activities like snorkeling, such as diving, deep-sea diving, and other sports make these island more popular.

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Posted in Geography

The Coastal Plains

updated on March 17th, 2019

The coastal plains in India run parallel to the Arabian Sea & Bay of Bengal along the Peninsular Plateau.The western coastal plain is a narrow belt along the Arabian sea of about 10-20km wide. It stretches from Rann of Kachchh to KanyaKumari. Western coastal plains comprises of three sectors (i) Konkan Coast (Mumbai to Goa), (ii) Karnataka coast from Goa to Mangalore (iii) Malabar Coast (Mangalore to Kanya Kumari). The eastern coast runs along Bay of Bengal. It is wider than the western coastal plain. Its average width is about 120Kms. The northern part of the coast is called Northern Circar and the southern part is called Coromandal Coast. Eastern coastal plain is marked by Deltas made by the rivers Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna amd Kaveri. The Chilka largest salt water lake in India in Odisha is located to the south of Mahanadi Delta. The coastal plains are belts for growing spices, rice, coconut, pepper etc. They are centres of trade & commerce. The coastal areas are known for fishing activities, therefore large number of fishing villages have developed along the coasts. Vembanad is famous lagoon which is located at Malabar coast.

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Posted in Geography

The Peninsular Plateau

updated on March 17th, 2019

It is part of ancient land mass called Gondwana level. It covers an area of nearly 5 lakh It is spread over the states of Gujarat, Maharashtra, Bihar, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh.

River Narmada divides the peninsular plateau into two parts : The central highlands and Deccan Plateau.

(i) The central Highlands: It extends from Narmada river and the northern plains. A ravallis is the important mountain which extends from Gujrat through Rajasthan to Delhi. The highest peak of the Aravallis hills is Gurushikhar (1722m) near Mt. Abu. The Malwa Plateau and Chhota Nagpur plateau are parts of the central highlands. River Betwa, chambal and Ken are the important river of Malwa plateau while Mahadeo, Kaimur and Maikal are the important hills of chhota Nagpur plateau. The valley of Narmada is lies between the Vindhyas and the satpura which flows east to west and joins the Arabian sea.

(ii) The Deccan Plateau: The Deccan plateau is separated by a fault (A fracture in the rock along which rocks have been relatively replaced), from Chota Nagpur plateau. The black soil area in the Deccan plateau is known as Deccan trap. It is formed due to volcanic eruptions. This soil is good for cotton & sugarcane cultivation. The Deccan plateau is broadly divided into:
(a) The Western Ghats
(b) The Eastern Ghats

(a) The Western Ghats: If you look at map (Fig. No. 9.6), we will see the
Western Ghats or Sahyadris lie on the Western edge of the Deccan plateau.
It runs parallel to the western coast for about 1600 km. The average elevation of the Western Ghats is 1000 metres. The famous peaks in this area are Doda Betta, Anaimudi amd Makurti. The highest peak in this region is Anaimudi (2695m.). Western ghats are continuous and can be crossed through passes like Pal Ghat, Thal Ghot and Bhor Ghat. The rivers like Godavari, Bhima and Krishna flow eastward while the river Tapti flows westward. The streams form rapids & water falls before entering the Arabian Sea. The famous water falls are Jogfalls on Sharavati, Shiva Samudram falls on Kaveri etc.

(b) The Eastern Ghats: The Eastern Ghats are discontinuous low belt. Their average elevation is 600 m. They run parallel to the east coast from south of Mahanadi valley to the Nilgiri hills. The highest peak in this region is Mahendragiri (1501 m). The famous hills are Mahendragiri hills, Nimaigiri hills in Orissa, Nallamallai hills in Southern Andhra Pradesh, Kollimalai and Pachaimalai in Tamilnadu. The area is drained by the Mahanadi, Godawari, Krishna and Kaveri river systems. The Nilgiri hills join Western & Eastern Ghats in the south.

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