Posted in Prelims

GS 1 prelim 2018/74

updated on March 22nd, 2019

74. With reference to Indian history, who among the following is a future Buddha, yet to come to save the world ?

(a) Avalokiteshvara

(b) Lokesvara

(c) Maitreya

(d) Padmapani

Answer is ‘C’

Maitreya is regarded as a future Buddha of this world in Buddhist eschatology. In some Buddhist literature, such as the Amitabha Sutra and the Lotus Sutra, he is referred to as Ajita.

According to Buddhist tradition, Maitreya is a bodhisattva who will appear on Earth in the future, achieve complete enlightenment, and teach the pure dharma.

According to scriptures, Maitreya will be a successor to the present Buddha, Gautama Buddha (also known as Śākyamuni Buddha).

The prophecy of the arrival of Maitreya refers to a time in the future when the dharma will have been forgotten by most on the terrestrial world Maitreya has also been adopted for his millenarian role by many non-Buddhist religions in the past, such as the White Lotus, as well as by modern new religious movements, such as Yiguandao

Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maitreya

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Posted in Prelims

GS 1 prelim 2018/73

updated on March 22nd, 2019

73. Which one of the following foreign travellers elaborately discussed about diamonds and diamond mines of India ?

(a) Francois Bernier

(b) Jean-Baptiste Tavernier

(c) Jean de Thevenot

(d) Abbe Barthelemy Carre

Answer is ‘B’

S1: The Buland Darwaza is made of red and buff sandstone, decorated by white and black marble and is higher than the courtyard of the mosque. The Buland Darwaza is symmetrical and is topped by large free-standing kiosks, which are the chhatris.

S2: The architectural style of the Rumi Darwaza is completely in sync with the Nawabi architecture of Lucknow, and its significantly different from the Mughals. The material used for the drawaza is bricks and its then coated with lime, while the Mughals often used red sand stone. This is why the detailing on the Darwaza is more intricate, which would be impossible to achieve in stone.

Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bara_Imambara

Posted in Prelims

GS 1 prelim 2018/72

updated on March 22nd, 2019

72. With reference to the cultural history of India, consider the following statements :

1. White marble was used in making Buland Darwaza and Khankah at Fatehpur Sikri.

2. Red sandstone and marble were used in making Bara Imambara and Rumi Darwaza at Lucknow.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 only

(c)Both 1 and 2

(d)Neither 1 nor 2

Answer is ‘A’

S1: The Buland Darwaza is made of red and buff sandstone, decorated by white and black marble and is higher than the courtyard of the mosque. The Buland Darwaza is symmetrical and is topped by large free-standing kiosks, which are the chhatris.

S2: The architectural style of the Rumi Darwaza is completely in sync with the Nawabi architecture of Lucknow, and its significantly different from the Mughals. The material used for the drawaza is bricks and its then coated with lime, while the Mughals often used red sand stone. This is why the detailing on the Darwaza is more intricate, which would be impossible to achieve in stone.

Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bara_Imambara

Posted in Art and Culture, Prelims

GS 1 prelim 2018/71

updated on March 22nd, 2019

71. With reference to the religious practices in India, the “Sthanakvasi” sect belongs to

(a) Buddhism

(b) Jainism

(c) Vaishnavism

(d) Shaivism

Answer is ‘B’

Sthānakavāsī is a sect of Śvētāmbara Jainism founded by a merchant named Lavaji in 1653 AD. It believes that idol worship is not essential in the path of soul purification and attainment of Nirvana/Moksha.

The sect is essentially a reformation of the one founded on teachings of Lonka, a fifteenth-century Jain reformer. Sthānakavāsins accept thirty-two of the Jain Agamas, the Śvētāmbara canon. Śvētāmbarins who are not Sthānakavāsins are mostly part the Murtipujaka sect

Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sth%C4%81nakav%C4%81s%C4%AB

Posted in History of Modern India, Prelims

GS 1 prelim 2018/70

updated on March 22nd, 2019

70. Who among the following were the founders of the “Hind Mazdoor Sabha” established in 1948 ?

(a) B. Krishna Pillai, E.M.S. Namboodiripad and K.C. George

(b) Jayaprakash Narayan, Deen Dayal Upadhyay and M.N. Roy

(c) C.P. Ramaswamy Iyer, K. Kamaraj and Veeresalingam Pantulu

(d) Ashok Mehta, T.S. Ramanujam and G.G. Mehta

Answer is ‘D’

The HMS was founded in Howrah in 1948 by socialists Forward Bloc followers and independent unionists which included Basawon Singh (Sinha), Ashok Mehta, R.S. Ruikar, Maniben Kara, Shibnath Banerjee, R.A. Khedgikar, T.S. Ramanujam, V.S. Mathur, G.G. Mehta. R.S. Ruikar was elected president and Ashok Mehta general secretary.

HMS absorbed the Royist Indian Federation of Labour and the Hind Mazdoor Panchayat, which was formed in 1948 by socialists leaving the increasingly communist dominated AITUC. 

Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hind_Mazdoor_Sabha

Posted in Prelims

GS 1 prelim 2018/69

updated on March 22nd, 2019

69. Which one of the following is a very significant aspect of the Champaran Satyagraha ?

(a) Active all-India participation of lawyers, students and women in the National Movement.

(b) Active involvement of Dalit and Tribal communities of India in the National Movement

(c) Joining of peasant unrest to India’s National Movement

(d) Drastic decrease in the cultivation of plantation crops and commercial crops

Answer is ‘C’

Known as India’s first civil disobedience movement, it was launched by Mahatma Gandhi to protest against the injustice meted out to tenant farmers in Champaran district of Bihar.

It is widely regarded as the place where Gandhi made his first experiments in satyagraha and then replicated them elsewhere.

Why?

To commemorate the anniversary of the Champaran Satyagraha movement, Prime Minister Narendra Modi visited East Champaran in the Month of March 2018 where he addressed over 20,000 swachhagrahis from across the country engaged in creating awareness among people to construct toilets and avoid defecation in open.

PS Gandhi in India

Posted in History of Modern India, Prelims

GS 1 prelim 2018/68

updated on March 22nd, 2019

68. The staple commodities of export by the English East India Company from Bengal in the middle of the 18th century were

(a) Raw cotton, oil-seeds and opium

(b) Sugar, salt, zinc and lead

(c) Copper, silver, gold, spices and tea

(d) Cotton, silk, saltpetre and opium

Answer is ‘D’

The East India Company was originally formed in Britain for pursuing a trade with the East Indies in Southeast Asia. In fact, it ended up trading mainly with the Indian subcontinent and China, where the main items of trade were cotton, silk, tea, opium, and saltpetre (potassium nitrate).

Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/East_India_Company

Posted in Prelims

GS 1 prelim 2018/67

updated on March 22nd, 2019

67. With reference to solar power production in India, consider the following statements :

1. India is the third largest in the world in the manufacture of silicon wafers used in photovoltaic units.

2. The solar power tariffs are determined by the Solar Energy Corporation of India.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 only

(c) Both 1 and 2

(d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer is ‘D’

 Not a single silicon chip for solar energy is manufactured in India. Every solar panel which is made in India is assembled while all the material comes from China, Europe and some other countries. India is yet to develop semiconductor clusters.

S2: CERC determines solar power tariffs and regulates the tariff of generating companies owned or controlled by the Central Government.

SECI has a power-trading license, but it does not set solar power tariffs.

Posted in Science and Technology

GS 1 prelim 2018/66

updated on March 22nd, 2019

66. When the alarm of your smartphone rings in the morning, you wake up and tap it to stop the alarm which causes your geyser to be

switched on automatically. The smart mirror in your bathroom shows the day’s weather and also indicates the level of water in your overhead tank. After you take some groceries from your refrigerator for making breakfast, it recognises the shortage of stock in it and places an order for the supply of fresh grocery

items. When you step out of your house and lock the door, all lights, fans, geysers and AC machines get switched off automatically. On your way to office, your car warns you about technology traffic congestion ahead and suggests an alternative route, and if you are late for a meeting, it sends a message to your office accordingly.

In the context of emerging communication technologies, which one of the following terms

best applies to the above scenario ?

(a) Border Gateway Protocol

(b) Internet of Things

(c) Internet Protocol

(d) Virtual Private Network

Answer is ‘B’

The Internet of Things (IoT) refers to a network comprised of physical objects capable of gathering and sharing electronic information. The Internet of Things includes a wide variety of “smart” devices, from industrial machines that transmit data about the production process to sensors that track information about the human body.

Often, these devices use internet protocol (IP), the same protocol that identifies computers over the World Wide Web and allows them to communicate with one another.

The goal behind the internet of things is to have devices that self-report in real time, improving efficiency and bringing important information to the surface more quickly than a system depending on human intervention.

Source: https://www.investopedia.com/terms/i/internet-things.asp#ixzz5HdMkuick 

Posted in Prelims

GS 1 prelim 2018/64

updated on March 22nd, 2019

64. Consider the following pairs :

Terms sometimes seen in news Context/Topic

1. Belle experiment – Artificial Intelligence

2. Blockchain – Digital/ Cryptocurrency

3. CRISPR-Cas9 – Particle Physics

Which of the pairs given above is/are correctly matched ?

(a) 1 and 3 only

(b) 2 only

(c) 2 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

Answer is ‘B’

S1: The Belle II experiment is designed to record data at Super KEKB, a 3 km circumference asymmetric electron-positron collider with a performance similar or better than Belle or BaBar, the B factory detectors, in a much more severe beam background environment.

Belle-2 experiment in Tsukuba, Japan, by The High Energy Accelerator Research Organisation (KEK) is designedto study violations of the Standard Model of particle physics.

S2: A block chain is a digitized, decentralized, public ledger of all crypto currency transactions. Constantly growing as ‘completed’ blocks (the most recent transactions) are recorded and added to it in chronological order, it allows market participants to keep track of digital currency transactions without central recordkeeping. Each node (a computer connected to the network) gets a copy of the block chain, which is downloaded automatically.

S3: CRISPR technology is a simple yet powerful tool for editing genomes. It allows researchers to easily alter DNA sequences and modify gene function. Its many potential applications include correcting genetic defects, treating and preventing the spread of diseases and improving crops. However, its promise also raises ethical concerns.

Source: https://www.belle2.org/

https://www.investopedia.com/terms/b/blockchain.asp

https://www.livescience.com/58790-crispr-explained.html