Posted in History of Modern India

The Kol Uprising (1831-1832)

The Kol Uprising (1831-1832): The Kols of Singhbhum in the Chhotanagpur area enjoyed autonomy under their chiefs but the entry of the British threatened their independence. Later the transfer of tribal lands and the coming of moneylenders, merchants and British laws created a lot of tension. This prompted the Kol tribe to organise themselves and rebel. The impact was such that the British had to rush troops from far off places to suppress it.

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Posted in History of Modern India

Jaintia and Garo Rebellion (1860-1870s)

Jaintia and Garo Rebellion Rebellion (1860-1870s): After the First Anglo- Burmese War, the British planned the construction of a road connecting Brahmaputra Valley (present-day Assam) with Sylhet (present-day Bangladesh). The Jaintias and the Garos in the North-Eastern part of India (present-day Meghalaya) opposed the construction of this road which was of strategic importance to the British for the movement of troops. In 1827, the Jaintias tried to stop work and soon the unrest spread to the neighboring Garo hills. Alarmed, the British burnt several Jaintias and Garo villages. The hostilities increased with the introduction of House Tax and Income Tax by the British in 1860s. The Jaintias leader U Kiang Nongbah was captured and publicly hanged and the Garo leader Pa Togan Sangma was defeated by the British.

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Posted in History of Modern India

Munda Rebellion (1899-1900)

updated on March 15th, 2019

Munda Rebellion (1899-1900): One of the most important and prominent rebellions which took place after 1857 was the Munda Rebellion. The Mundas traditionally enjoyed certain rights as the original clearer of the forest which was not given to the other tribes. But this land system was getting destroyed in the hands of the merchants and moneylenders long before the coming of the British. But when the British actually came into these areas they helped to destroy this system with a rapid pace when they introduced contractors and traders. These contractors needed people to work with them as indentured laborers. This dislocation of the Mundas at the hands of the British and their contractors gave birth to the Munda Rebellion. The most prominent leader of this rebellion was Birsa Munda who was more aware than the others as he had received some education from the Missionaries. He encouraged his tribe people to keep the tradition of worshipping of the sacred groves alive. This move was very important to prevent the Britishers from taking over their wastelands. For this, Birsa Munda fought against the moneylenders/mahajans and English officials.

He attacked Police Stations, Churches and missionaries. Unfortunately, the rebels were defeated and Munda died in prison soon after in 1900. But his sacrifice did not go in vain. The Chhotanagpur Tenancy Act of 1908 provided some land ownership rights to the people and banned bonded labor of the tribal. Birsa Munda became the architect of Munda Rebellion and somebody who is remembered even today.

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