updated on May 19th, 2019
- the female labour participation rate (LFPR) in India has declined from 31.2%(2011-12) to 23.3% (2017-18)
What is labour Force Participation Rate?
Labour force participation rate is defined as the section of the working population in the age group of 16-64 in the economy currently employed or seeking employment. People who are still undergoing studies, housewives and persons above the age of 64 are not reckoned in the labour force.
Right now we are only concerned with Women unemployment and lower LFPR
Reasons for lower participation of women in workforce
- Low social acceptability of women working outside the household .
- lack of access to a safe and secure workplace.
- poor and unequal wages for women.
- moderately educated women avoid working outside the household in agricultural labour, and suitable jobs are not available for them hence they are an unemployed workforce.
- A large amount of women labour is unpaid in disguise of child care elderly care, fetching water, woods, cooking cleaning house etc.
How women’s participation in workforce increase ?
- Providing decent employment to women with security, public services like clean toilets and equal pay.
- also, recognise, reduce, redistribute, and remunerate women’s unpaid work.
- safe and secure public transport.
- social security including maternity benefits, sickness benefits, provident fund and pension.
- adequate lighting and CCTV cameras to prevent violence against women in public spaces and to increase their mobility.
- governments must set up migration facilitation and crisis centres (temporary shelter facility, helpline, legal aid, and medical and counselling facilities).
- They must also allocate social housing spaces for women workers, which include rental housing and hostels.
- They must ensure spaces for women shopkeepers and hawkers in all markets and vending zones.
- Their fundamental demand is that women must be recognised as farmers in accordance with the National Policy for Farmers; this should include cultivators, agricultural labourers, pastoralists, livestock rearers, forest workers, fish-workers, and salt pan workers.
- Thereafter, their equal rights and entitlements over land and access to inputs, credit, markets, and extension services must be ensured.
Women in Judiciary
- Since 1950, the SC has had only eight female judges out of 239, with the present three out of 27 being the highest concurrent representation women have ever had on the SC bench. (As of May 2019)
- In the subordinate judiciary, merely 27.6 per cent of the judges are female.
- In 25 HC collegiums across the country, there are just five senior female judges with 19 of the collegiums having no female judge at all.
- Only one woman so far has been a member of the SC collegium (Justice Ruma Pal), with Justice R Banumathi set to become the second later this year; and, at least until 2025, no female judge is going to occupy the CJI’s position.
- This gender parity came into light after the SC’s failure of giving a fair trial of ex-staff, the victim of Sexual harassment, who accused the Chief Justice of India
- If there would have been more female judges, the case might have been handled in a different manner.